African American Soldiers in the National Guard

Recruitment and Deployment During Peacetime and War
Charles Johnson, Jr.

Postwar Reorganization and Realignment

African Americans demanded their enlistment into the peacetime army and the elimination of discrimination and segregation in the armed forces. The War Department had begun integrating units on a limited basis during the war, but the occasional brigading or attachment of African American soldiers with white organizations was definitely not a trend toward alleviating segregation. Secretary of War Robert W.Patterson appointed a board of officers to investigate and recommend the best methods of utilizing African American personnel. Meeting on October 1, 1945, under the leadership of Lieutenant General Alvan C. Gillem, Jr., the board on April 27, 1946, released its report, The Utilization of Negro Manpower in the Postwar Army.

The Gillem Report recommended eliminating African American divisions and continuing a policy that permitted organizations to consolidate on a composite basis. Although platoons would be incorporated into companies, companies into battalions, and battalions into regiments, African American soldiers would perform individual administrative and maintenance tasks. However, recreational and housing facilities, officers’ and noncommissioned officers’ messes, and other social organizations were still segregated. The report established a 10 percent enlistment quota but allowed the advancement of African Americans. When the War Department implemented the Gillem recommendations, Civilian Aide Marcus H.Ray, former Illinois guardsman who had served in the 184th Field Artillery and 600th Field Artillery Battalion, toured European installations to evaluate compliance with the report.  1 Because federal military reorganization and realignment were the focus of the Gillem Report, it did not provide guidance to the National Guard under the jurisdiction of the appropriate adjutants general. However, the War Department established trends that were implemented at the state level.

President Harry S Truman by executive order during the following year formed an Advisory Commission on Universal Education, which addressed the issue of implementing federal military policies. The commission sought information concerning state enlistment of African Americans and whether they were organized separately or on a composite basis at the platoon, company, or battalion level. The National Guard Bureau (NGB) submitted the commission’s request to state adjutants general to determine which policies were practiced. Some states did not respond by April 27, 1947, and their views were not included in the official reply. The North Carolina adjutant general had diplomatically avoided the issue and erroneously alleged the state had never enlisted African Americans and, if they were enrolled, they would prefer service under white soldiers. Assistant Adjutant General C.I.Marlin of Kansas was similarly unaware of African American participation within his state when he negatively responded to the NGB. The Delaware adjutant general emphatically denied any intention to extend service, and the Georgia Adjutant General Alpha A.Fowler did not contemplate enlisting African Americans. He stressed that if it was necessary to use African Americans under the Universal Military Training Act, the state would consider the formation of labor battalions only. Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Oregon, and South Carolina considered the formation of African Americans as impractical.  2

States with relatively small populations of African Americans thought the formation of segregated organizations was imprudent. Vermont Adjutant General Murdock A.Campbell emphasized their wide dispersement in the states. He had never experienced any enlistment of African Americans in the local National Guard. Maine Adjutant General George N.Carter understood that African American enlistment would necessitate integration, which would not cause any problems for the Maine National Guard. Because Montana had only 1,120 African Americans in 1940 according to the census, the adjutant general did not contemplate their enlistment, but if they were recruited and commissioned it would have required integration at the platoon level. African American residents in Colorado lived primarily in Denver, and Adjutant General Irving O. Schaefer was aware of only two inquiries concerning the formation of a unit for African Americans.  3

The African American population was significantly higher in Virginia and Texas, but both states were not interested in extending their recruitment. Brigadier General S.Gardner Waller of Virginia stressed that, whenever African American organizations were requested, the state would not integrate the National Guard. Texas Air National Guard Brigadier General David L.Hill believed the only democratic and harmonious method of accomplishing African American recruitment without conflict was through separate units and with assignments commensurate with personnel’s ability to perform their mission. Brigadier General Gainer B.Jones believed the reactions to the Houston riot of 1917 had caused antipathy toward the African American military units. He thought their enrollment would have a negative effect upon potential white enlistment and diminish pride in the National Guard. Major General Preston A. Weatherred, who commanded the 36th Infantry Division, recommended only the integration of auxiliary services because utilizing African Americans as cooks and kitchen police would release other personnel for combat-related duties. Their mobilization as infantry soldiers during civil disturbances, he considered, would have been unsuccessful and would have created complications for National Guard officials. The Texas assistant adjutant general, therefore, notified the chief of the National Guard Bureau (CNGB) that Texas would not organize African American units under its allotment.  4

The District of Columbia and several other states reported favorably to the CNGB concerning formation of African American organizations. Instead of the traditional infantry units, experience during the war had proven the ability of African Americans to perform in a diversified and complex military environment. Colonel Peyton G.Nevitt reflected on the harmonious administrative relationship between headquarters and African American personnel and the successful past joint maneuvers that had been conducted. With many officers and enlisted personnel returning from the war with higher rank, he believed that most would continue their service in the National Guard. A reorganization and realignment began in 1946 with the 171st Military Police Battalion and the 715th Quartermaster Truck Company allocated for African Americans in addition to the recruitment of an antiaircraft automatic weapons battalion. Although the War Department had suspended any modification of the National Guard Troop List until March 1947, Colonel Dillon S. Myers in the National Guard Bureau supported the request for the additional battalions after the District of Columbia considered the planned utilization of African American guardsmen. Colonel Nevitt replied that because interest was shown only during the formation of the military police battalion and there was difficulty in raising the quartermaster truck battalion, he would not continue to ask for an antiaircraft automatic weapons battalion. The occupation of their armory by a federal agency also hindered the expansion of African American organizations. The NGB approved the activation of the 171st Military Police Battalion under Lieutenant Colonel Sylvester F. Blackwell on May 1, 1947. The 715th Quartermaster Truck Company was also activated and attached to the battalion.  5

California prepared a troop list that provided for the recruitment of the 6th Engineer Combat Group in Los Angles with companies in San Bernardino, Riverside, and San Diego and the organization of the 719th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. When the 6th Engineer Combat Group was formed on January 1, 1947, it had only two companies in Los Angeles by February 10, 1947. However, the 1401st Battalion was recruited by April 8, 1947, and the 1402nd Battalion by November 2, 1947. The 719th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion was also activated and assigned to the 112th Antiaircraft Brigade.  6

Connecticut planned the enlistment of the 103rd Antiaircraft Battalion with batteries located in Bridgeport, Hartford, and New Haven.  7 African Americans had not served in the local National Guard since the 1st Separate Company was disbanded in 1919.

The tradition of maintaining African American guardsmen in Illinois was continued when the adjutant general on September 9, 1946, requested an additional combat team composed of an infantry regiment with artillery, engineer, and medical companies. The National Guard commanding general knew that African Americans desired the expanded organization, and he believed their past achievements warranted the new organization. To emphasize the contributions of the 8th Illinois Infantry Regiment, he recommended that the numerical designation of the combat team end with the numeral eight.

The new designation not only recognized the 8th Illinois Infantry Regiment as a subordinate element but also recognized the contributions of guardsmen that served in other units during World War II. Therefore, by June 17, 1948, the 178th Regimental Combat Team was composed of the 178th Infantry Regiment, 184th Field Artillery Battalion, 1698th Engineer Combat Company, 184th Medical Collecting Company, and 154th Army Ground Band, all of which traced their lineage to either the 9th Illinois Battalion or 8th Illinois Regiment. The Illinois chief of staff, Brigadier General Kenneth Buchanan also proposed the formation of two quartermaster railhead companies, or a quartermaster railhead company and a quartermaster salvage repair, in addition to the recruiting of the 199th Transportation Truck Battalion. These organizations were not recruited during 1949, but the adjutant general was still contemplating the expansion of African Americans in the National Guard. The recruitment of pilots in the newly formed Illinois Air National Guard would have been an acceptable area of expansion of the 178th Regimental Combat Team.  8

The 178th Regimental Combat Team was under the capable leadership of Colonel Richard L.Jones. Born in Albany, Georgia, on December 21, 1893, and graduated from the University of Cincinnati and the University of Illinois, he had served in the 317th Engineers during World War I and joined the Service Company, 8th Illinois Infantry Regiment in 1936. Appointed assistant plans and training officer on March 7, 1939, he remained with the regiment until it was activated and converted into the 184th Field Artillery. Throughout World War II he served as the plans and training officer for the 8th Illinois Battalion assigned to the Illinois Reserve Militia. He was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel to assist Colonel William Warfield and was later selected to command the 178th Infantry Regiment until his retirement on January 21, 1953. He was immediately promoted to brigadier general in the Retired Reserve Militia. Brigadier General Jones became ambassador to Liberia and served as dean of the diplomatic corps in Monrovia. Chicago honored him for his splendid military service and devotion of duties as an ambassador on October 17, 1970.  9

Indiana planned to form the 934th Clearance Company, 856th Medical Collection Company, 915th Motor Ambulance Company, and 414th Quartermaster Company. With the consent of the governor, the allocation for these units was withdrawn except for the last company. The indecision concerning the permanent location of the National Guard storage and maintenance warehouse area hindered the recruitment of the 414th Quartermaster Company planned for December 1, 1949. Because state officials were unable to decide between Camp Atterbury or Fort Benjamin Harrison, the adjutant general on January 14, 1950, requested the CNGB to withdraw the allocation.  10

The initial Maryland request to the CNGB did not include the reorganization of African American guardsmen, but Adjutant General Milton A.Reckord was granted authority to recruit the 231st Transportation Truck Battalion. When the 147th and 726th Transportation Truck Companies were organized on March 4, 1947, the adjutant general stressed that integration was undesirable and that state officials would not approve integration at any level. When the headquarters and headquarters detachment were formed on April 26, 1947, the battalion was composed of guardsmen who had served in the 372nd Infantry Regiment and the 11th Militia Battalion. The latter, originally formed in June 1941 and designated as the 10th Battalion, performed security duties at Prettyboy Dam and was commanded by Major William Creigler until his retirement on October 19, 1944. Captain William M.Brady succeeded Major Creigler, and with the reorganization and realignment of the National Guard, Governor Herbert O’Conner appointed Major Brady to reorganize African American guardsmen.  11

The revised Selective Service Act and a protest for expanded military participation for African Americans caused Major General Reckord to propose the recruitment of additional companies on a pro rata basis. Although not retreating from his announced stand against integration, he planned the organization of additional units, which began the 165th Transportation Truck Company and 224th Quartermaster Salvage Repair Company. Major Vernon F.Greene was also selected as the commander of the expanded 231st Transportation Truck Battalion.  12

Lieutenant Colonel Larkland F.Hewitt, who commanded the 1st Infantry Battalion, 27th Massachusetts Militia Regiment during World War II, requested the adjutant general to reestablish the 372nd Infantry Regiment by securing the cannon company, antitank company, and regimental staff in addition to the traditionally assigned infantry battalion for African American guardsmen. The CNGB, however, informed the adjutant general that the revised policy of the secretary of war, October 13, 1945, negated the formation of regiments composed of soldiers from several states. Although Massachusetts would receive several battalions, which may have been infantry, Adjutant General William H.Harrison, Jr., was permitted to designate one of them for its African American personnel. Therefore the 177th Tank Battalion was converted into the 372nd Field Artillery, but the former armory of the 372nd Infantry Battalion was not capable of housing armor and vehicles with 155mm artillery. The only alternative under the state allotment was converting the tank battalion into a 105mm field artillery; therefore, the unit began as the 272nd Field Artillery Battalion. When the National Guard eliminated 105mm artillery from its inventory in 1948, the battalion was equipped with 105mm artillery. Massachusetts was also allocated the 39th Army Band, one of the best in the military. Massachusetts was unable to receive the 372nd designation for the battalion and band because New Jersey and Ohio had been granted the designation as part of their state allocation.  13

State adjutants general in Michigan, Missouri, and Nebraska were interested in the allocation of units for African Americans. Responding to requests for equal opportunity in the Michigan National Guard, Governor Kim Sigler authorized recruitment of the 1279th Engineer Combat Battalion by Adjutant General LeRoy Pearson. Although inadequate armory facilities prolonged the completion of the organization, African Americans were confident that the battalion would be formed because African Americans were already serving as Military Police in the Michigan State Troops.  14 The Missouri adjutant general similarly formed the 242nd Engineer Combat Battalion with units located in Kansas City and St. Louis.  15 Nebraska Adjutant General Guy N.Henninger on December 20, 1946, sought two motor transport companies, but War Department policy prevented any state revisions until March 15, 1947. The CNGB realized that a troop distribution problem existed and that some states, such as Pennsylvania and Wyoming, required additional artillery units. Because New York had deferred the activation of some artillery units and because he had received relatively few requests for service units, the CNGB realigned National Guard requirements and amended the Nebraska troop list with the assignment of the 111th Transportation Truck Company. The adjutant general was not pleased with the allocation and complained that priority consideration to units already on the troop list would have permitted him to concentrate on their organization. Officials of the NGB were dismayed by the actions of Adjutant General Henninger, who initially wanted two companies but declined the allocation after the bureau obtained one.  16

Attorney Bertram C.Bland, who served as chairman of the public affairs committee for the Alpha Alpha Lambda chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, was among the individuals seeking the reestablishment of the 372nd Infantry Regiment and the integration of the New Jersey National Guard in 1946. With additional support from the NAACP and the Atlantic City Club Federation, he petitioned Governor Walter E.Edge and Adjutant General James L.Bowers to include African Americans in the realigned and reoganized National Guard. After his committee conferred with Governor Walter E.Edge and the state military board, which reiterated the recommendations of the Gillem Report, he sought assistance from Senator H.Alexander Smith. The senator urged the War Department to arrange a meeting with the committee to explain National Guard policy. The NGB did not meet with the committee, but its policy was the same as stated in the Gillem Report. The NGB also determined that dividing regiments among several states was unwise, but New Jersey could request the 372nd Infantry designation. The adjutant general, therefore, recruited the 372nd Antiaircraft Artillery Group, consisting of the 122nd and 308th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalions. The former battalion was organized in 1949 with units located in Atlantic City, Camden, Sea Girt, and Trenton; the latter battalion was granted authority only to recruit its headquarters and headquarters battery.  17

New York had maintained the 15th Home Guard Regiment in Harlem during World War II, and an aggressive campaign led by Kings County Assistant District Attorney Clarence Wilson resulted in the formation of the 3rd Separate Battalion for residents in Brooklyn and Queens. Colonel Elmer P.Sawyer, a graduate of Tuskegee Institute and Brown University, commanded the 15th Home Guard Regiment until he was succeeded by Lieutenant Colonel William Chisum, who was the first African American in the state to receive a commission during a military review. Judge Myles A. Paige, with previous service in the 369th Infantry Regiment, became the commander of the 3rd Separate Home Guard Battalion.  18 This enthusiastic military support, in addition to the interest of guardsmen who served during the war, caused New York Lieutenant General Hugh A.Drum to refer to the enlistment of African Americans as an acute problem. He requested additional units be allotted for them. The CNGB, Major General Butler B.Miltonberger, granted New York the 369th Antiaircraft Artillery Group Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 369th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion, 369th Signal Radar Maintenance Unit, 870th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion, 223rd Antiaircraft Artillery Group Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 715th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion, 3629th Ordnance Maintenance Antiaircraft Company, 176th Military Police Battalion, and 369th Army Band. This organizational structure was altered when the 3629th Ordnance Maintenance Antiaircraft Company allotment was withdrawn on August 10, 1949. The 223rd Antiaircraft Artillery Group Headquarters and Headquarters Battery was redesignated as the 244th Antiaircraft Artillery Group Headquarters and Head-quarters Battery, and the military police battalion was converted into the 771st Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion on February 1, 1950.  19

The existence of African American units in New York caused a problem for the State Commission against Discrimination. Louis T. Wright of the NAACP denounced the National Guard policy and urged New York Adjutant General Ames T.Brown to remove all discriminatory barriers that prevented African Americans living beyond the metropolis of New York City from joining local units. Most African Americans agreed that integration was best for all citizens and that their organizations, as well as others, should have equal opportunity for all guardsmen.  20

Governor John W.Bricker had authorized the enlistment of the Ohio 1st Separate State Guard Company in Cleveland during the war. However, neither Major Charles Gardner nor the former guardsmen of the 372nd Infantry were given assurance of being included in the realigned Ohio National Guard. African American veterans and citizens, especially concerned with the status of guardsmen who had served in the Hawaiian Islands during the war, petitioned Governor Frank J.Lausche to include personnel from both units in the reorganization and realignment of the National Guard. The adjutant general in 1946 envisioned that former state guardsmen would become the nucleus of the 371st Antiaircraft Artillery Group Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 182nd Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion, 183rd Antiaircraft Searchlight Battalion, 186th and 188th Signal Radar Maintenance Units, 1400th Engineer Searchlight Maintenance Team, 706th, 707th, and 708th Quartermaster Railhead Companies, and 122nd Army Ground Band. However, a survey conducted by Brigadier General C.W.Goble revealed the organization lacked qualified officers and enlisted technicians. Therefore, the adjutant general determined it was more advantageous to recruit white personnel for these units. After conferring with prominent African Americans, the allotment for the 1400th Engineer Maintenance Team was withdrawn, and the quartermaster railhead allotment was eliminated because recruitment for these units was difficult. The 183rd Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion was assigned to the 371st Antiaircraft Artillery Group. With this reorganization and realignment, former guardsmen were recruited for the 372nd Infantry Battalion and 122nd Army Band that was formed in Cleveland. One company was assigned to Dayton. However, the 372nd Quartermaster Reclamation and Maintenance Company was not organized.  21

With the exception of a relatively brief period of service in the State Guard, Pennsylvania had not permitted the recruitment of African American guardsmen since the disbanding of the Invincible Grays. The state reorganization plan reversed the trend with the allocation of the 644th and 645th Engineer Battalions for African Americans. The adjutant general was reluctant to utilize the allocations, which expired on August 31, 1947, but the occurrence of several severe floods within the last 15 years caused Adjutant General F.A.Weber to attempt to enlist and assign four amphibian truck companies to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. The CNGB denied the extension of amphibian truck companies because of the limited availability of these units but granted the original allocation of engineer battalions.  22

The Providence Citizens League wanted to include African Americans into the Rhode Island National Guard, but it refused to consider the allocation of engineer, quartermaster, or labor units. Accepting a recommendation for a field artillery battery, acting Adjutant General James A.Murphy successfully obtained the 945th Coastal Artillery Battery. The failure of the state to allocate funds to erect additional armories and quarters for this battery and 13 other coastal artillery units prevented the activation of the 945th Coastal Artillery Battery. Ironically, the last state African American company was disbanded in 1907 because the adjutant general considered it unfeasible to enlist African Americans as coastal artillerymen.  23 Tennessee similarly disbanded Company G after World War I, but under its revised military plan in 1947, the state received the 2998th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company.  24

West Virginia had never sought the assistance of African Americans for its militia, but in 1933 a campaign was launched to organize a battalion. This movement was influenced by Fleming A. Jones, Jr., an African American who chaired the Military Affairs Committee in the State Legislature and who successfully gained passage of legislation authorizing the establishment of a battalion for African Americans. Although Governor Matthew M.Neely complained that financial restraints prevented the formation of the unit, Jones subsequently persuaded the state legislature to allocate annually $2,000 toward the formation of the battalion and $7,000 toward its maintenance. When provisions were finally formulated for the recruitment of the 1st Separate Battalion on February 6, 1942, Captains Fleming A.Jones, Jr., and Samuel Gordon, respectively, recruited companies in Welch and Charleston, but the companies were never officially organized into a battalion and were assigned to the State Guard.  25

The tenure of the State Guard expired with the reorganization of the National Guard, and it became imperative that personnel who desired to continue their militia affiliation apply for service as guardsmen. Personnel petitioned for the establishment of a company in Charleston. They stressed their loyalty and diligent performance of duty during the war. They urged the adjutant general to include their battalion as the nucleus of an infantry regiment combat team and gained the support of William J.L.Wallace, administrative assistant to the president of West Virginia State College. Wallace solicited assistance from Representative John Kee, who submitted their petition to the CNGB. Major General Miltonberger informed Representative Kee that the War Department would render every practical assistance in creating a battalion, but the appropriate official to initiate efforts to recruit the battalion was the state adjutant general.  26

Adjutant General Charles R.Fox recognized the efficiency of the 1st Separate Battalion, but, when the troop list was submitted, he requested a quartermaster battalion instead of an infantry organization. He alleged that this allocation, which was approved by the CNGB on August 21, 1946, would satisfy several factions that had submitted petitions for African American units. The 126th Quartermaster Battalion in addition to its headquarters and headquarters company and medical detachment was assigned the 201st and 254th Quartermaster Truck Companies. Because Brigadier General Fox wanted the 201st designation preserved for a future organization and did not want the heritage of the 201st designation assigned to African American guardsmen, the CNGB substituted the 480th designation for the truck company. Recruitment of the battalion was delayed because African American residents, led by the Charles Young American Legion Post and the Business and Professional Men’s Club, were displeased by the conversion of the infantry companies into quartermaster units. The adjutant general responded to their grievance by emphasizing that the battalion training and armaments would be comparable to infantry, but the personnel would also receive additional specialized instruction. He was additionally seeking to convert the battalion into a combat organization or have another combat company allocated to the existing battalion. Although he was aware of the availability of military police allocations, Adjutant General Fox considered the best solution was the allocation of an infantry organization in lieu of the transportation battalion. The CNGB stated that a conversion was impossible and advised Governor Okey L. Patteson to form the battalion at his earliest convenience, or the War Department would rescind the allocation. However, Major General Kenneth Cramer, who accepted the 126th Truck Battalion in November 1949, implied that Governor Patteson would have another opportunity to convert the truck battalion into a more desirable organization.  27

Establishing National Guard units coincided with the integration of the armed forces. It was generally understood that the National Guard was under the policy established by the Gillem committee, which supported segregation. Additionally Army Chief of Staff General Dwight Eisenhower and other officials of the Army General Staff agreed to withdraw federal recognition from National Guard units that integrated its personnel.  28 Although General Eisenhower accepted the integration of African American companies into white battalions, this policy was further delineated by the secretary of war. He stressed that integration on an individual basis within companies would not be accomplished except as requested by governors desiring to implement such a policy.  29

The Double V concept of victory over oppression overseas and victory over segregation and discrimination at home was only partially achieved. Although they recognized that many states, especially those in the South, were not inclined to organize any units for African American citizens, the continuing separate organizations was inconsistent with democratic principles and constituted a form of second-class citizenship. Establishing discriminatory practices for National Guard units was not only contrary to the Constitution but also violated the provisions of several state constitutions. Civilian Aide Marcus Ray and officials of the NAACP were among those who disagreed with the established War Department policies. Walter White asked Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson if he would oppose federalization of integrated National Guard units by state governors. Reiterating recommendations of the Gillem committee and emphasizing that integration was not contemplated on the company, troop, or battery level, Secretary Patterson stated that the matter was a decision for state officials. Assistant Special Counsel for the NAACP Franklin H.Williams received a similar response from Colonel Geesen when he inquired about integration in the New York National Guard. Civilian Aide Ray recommended that each state be permitted to resolve this issue for its organizations, but the War Department Operation and Training Division, as well as Air Force officials, believed National Guard integration would eventually increase the demand for individual integration of the regular Army.  30

New Jersey, under a revised state constitution that prohibited segregation in the National Guard, became the first state to effectively implement integration. Contrary to federal policy, Governor Alfred E.Driscoll endorsed legislation that terminated segregation and sought information regarding the possibility of the federal government denying funding to the state guard. Secretary of Defense James V.Forrestal was cognizant of the revised constitution and informed the governor that federal recognition of New Jersey militia units would not be denied based on its integration policy. However, Secretary of the Army Kenneth C.Royall reiterated the policy established on April 27, 1946, that permitted integration of African American units up to battalion level as separate units.  31

The commitment of New Jersey officials toward integration had a positive effect on officials in Connecticut, Minnesota, and New York who were concerned about the elimination of federal subsidies if they duplicated the efforts of New Jersey. Governor James L. McDonaughy considered National Guard segregation as repugnant, and he planned to eliminate segregated units immediately after his inauguration. His position was partially influenced when George Carter, a veteran who received a Purple Heart with five battle stars, applied for admission into the National Guard and was rejected because there was no provision for segregated units. Assured by the NGB that the New Jersey National Guard was not removed from the Striking Force after the secretary of war approved its integration plan, Governor McDonaughy informed President Truman of his intention to integrate National Guard units in Bridgeport, Hartford, and New Haven. This reorganization essentially meant the integration of the 43rd Division, which consisted of New England organizations. The governor further explained the difficulty of reorganizing and realigning the Connecticut National Guard without losing federal support. Governor Thomas E.Dewey was cognizant of a similar movement and endorsed the efforts of a special legislative committee to eliminate segregation in the New York National Guard. Meanwhile, Minnesota attempted to integrate its National Guard by a gubernatorial executive order.  32

Integration became an issue in California when five African Americans were enlisted and dismissed from the Pittsburgh State Guard during World War II. Because racial discrimination was prohibited in the state, Will W.Brown of the NAACP led a protest against the State Guard and solicited assistance from Governor Culbert L.Olson, Assemblyman Harold F.Sawallisch, Pittsburgh Mayor H.C.Chapin, and the Congress of International Organizations. The governor believed in the feasibility of organizing units for African Americans when they preferred it, such as the organization commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Moody Staten, who had served in the Philippine Islands during World War I and subsequently became military advisor for the Liberian Frontier Forces. He further felt that whenever it was impossible to recruit units for African Americans, they should have been enlisted into other organizations. Assemblyman Sawallisch concurred with the governor and pledged to bring the matter to the attention of the state legislature.  33

The National Military Officers Association and the California Citizens Military Affairs Committee (CCMAC) denounced the recruitment of the segregated 6th Engineer Combat Battalion. Bertrand B.Bratton, who chaired the CCMAC, contacted Assemblyman Jack Tenney, who allegedly agreed to introduce legislation to integrate the state National Guard. The Alameda County Branch of the NAACP expressed its 12-year opposition to separate units, and Moody Staten, representing the James M.Beck Post of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, further denounced the state policy to use the 7th State Guard Battalion to form the nucleus of the 6th Engineer Combat Battalion.  34

The Church Federation of Los Angeles also urged California Adjutant General S.D.O’Sullivan to establish integration policies. His response was to seek federal guidelines from the CNGB and inquire about the status of integration in other states. He had planned to include an antiaircraft battalion in the 112th Antiaircraft Brigade and to recruit the 6th Engineer Combat Group. When informed by Colonel Diller S.Myers on October 24, 1946, that several states were formulating integration plans and after legislation was enacted in New Jersey, African Americans continued to enunciate the preference of an integrated National Guard. After the legislature enacted an integrationist measure and the state attorney general questioned its validity, the director of the American Council on Human Rights, Elmer W.Anderson, emphasized that without the commitment of senior-level officials, the issue of National Guard integration would never be resolved in California. Integration was further strained when the CNGB declared that until the state requested nonsegregated units, the secretary of the Army was not authorized to make any exceptions under the National Defense Act. Therefore, California was similar to Illinois where integration legislation passed, but segregation remained the established policy.  35

State officials were frustrated by the Department of Defense and were relieved when President Truman issued Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948. The president convened a special session of the 80th Congress to declare the termination of segregation in the armed forces. He also announced the creation of the President’s Committee on Equality of Treatment in the Armed Forces. The selection of the committee, chaired by Charles Fahy, caused little excitement because of the election of 1948.  36 It was clearly evident, however, that Army officials did not assume the announcement would end segregation in the military. Many officers did not favor an immediate change whereas others felt that segregation was the best policy. Among the officers that appeared before the committee were Major General Raymond H.Fleming, Chief of the Army Division of the National Guard, Major General Kenneth Cramer, CNGB, and Lieutenant Colonel A.C.Boatman, Chief of the Plans Group of the Army Division in the NGB. Queried on the participation of African Americans, the Fahy Committee ascertained that of 347, 711 guardsmen, only 6,988 were African American. Although the authorized National Guard strength was 625,000, there were only 15,528 positions allocated for African Americans. This number represented 2.48 percent of the total strength. In addition to the District of Columbia, 14 states had African American guardsmen, but only Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York had passed legislation for nonsegregated units. However, Indiana, Minnesota, and Wisconsin were planning to eliminate segregated organizations. African American units were classified as nondivisional troops, and of 27 National Guard divisions, only in Connecticut and New Jersey were African American units attached to divisions. Incidently, these were the states that had integrated units on a limited basis.  37

Although the intention of President Truman was to establish a policy that provided equal opportunity and fair treatment to all military personnel, the situation with National Guard organizations remained unsettled and caused a dichotomy within the NGB. To assist in ameliorating African American resistance and aggressive demands for immediate integration, a group of distinguished African Americans was invited to participate in the National Defense Conference on Negro Affairs. In addition to eliminating segregation and discrimination, the conferees proposed recommendations concerning officer and enlisted strength in the armed forces, authorized minority strength in the National Guard and Organized Reserve Corps, the establishment of additional reserve officer training programs at African American land grant colleges and universities, and the employment of African Americans throughout the continental United States and overseas zones of occupation.  38

Philleo Nash viewed the absence of a uniform National Guard policy detrimental to the administration, and he required a decision and possible presidential action. He thought the issue complicated by gubernatorial inquiries about nondiscrimination of National Guard units, but the issue would become further complicated by the Grey Board—an advisory board to the secretary of defense that evaluated issues pertaining to the National Guard, Reserve Officer Training Corps, and the enlisted reserve—which was expected make its report on April 15, 1948. He concluded that the board would recommend one of three alternatives, and he urged that Special Advisor to the President Clark Clifford alert him to the anticipated board actions. The first action was to maintain the status quo within the National Guard. This essentially meant that, with the special exception of New Jersey where nonsegregated units existed, segregated units would remain in most states and in the southern states where African American enlistment was restricted. Another alternative was to implement the Gillem Board recommendations, which provided for the integration of separate African American units to the level of battalion. Although officers and specialists would be assigned to units without any regard to race, color, or national origin, the adoption of this possibility would have required states, excluding New Jersey, to train and retain African American personnel in separate units. The last alternative would be to permit each state to establish a policy concerning segregation and the employment of African American personnel. Nash concluded the states’ right approach was more feasible because it would prevent harassment from northern and southern states. Clark M.Clifford accepted the last alternative and recommended to President Truman that each state solve the problem of segregation or integration for its organized units.  39

The Fahy Committee endorsed Executive Order 9981 in its report, Freedom to Serve, submitted to President Truman on May 22, 1950, and the Army, under direction of Secretary Louis Johnson, submitted to the Department of Defense a plan that was approved on January 14, 1950. However, integration of the National Guard on any meaningful scale was not achieved during 1950. The Department of Defense adopted the policy of subjecting National Guard units and personnel under federal regulations to antidiscrimination and integration during periods of federalization while each state determined the status of units under their jurisdiction. The issue of withholding federal aid from states practicing discrimination or segregation remained a problem, but Assistant Secretary of the Army Karl R.Bendetson felt that withholding funds from National Guard units not in active federal service would reduce the effectiveness of the National Guard and adversely affect national security.  40

African Americans always believed they were entitled to serve in the National Guard, and they were extremely cognizant of the racial legislation and attitudes against their service in the armed forces. Enlisting during periods of national disturbances or crisis before 1877, their participation in National Guard units was primarily confined to infantry whereas in South Carolina and Georgia African Americans were recruited for artillery and cavalry units. Serving under the small provisions, which restricted the activities of all African Americans in the military, guardsmen were recognized for their devotion to duty, and on several occasions their assignments were allocated on the basis of national security. All of the guardsmen were aware of the substandard equipment issued to them and the fact that they seldom participated in brigade or divisional maneuvers. The esprit de corps exemplified by African Americans was unparalleled, but they also knew that integration and equality of opportunity in the National Guard would eventually elevate their officers and enlisted men to major positions with the National Guard.

NOTES

1.  Circular 1, War Department, Washington, DC, April 27, 1946; Jack D. Foner, Blacks and the Military in American History (New York: Praeger, 1974), p. 177; Richard M. Dalfiume, Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces: Fighting on Two Fronts, 1939–1953 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1969), pp. 152–53. The other board members were MG Lewis A.Pick, BG Winslow C.Morse, and BG Alvin D.Warnock.

2.  Delaware AG to CNGB, January 3, 1947, AR AG to CNGB, March 3, 1937, KS AAG to CNGB, March 5, 1947, NC AG to CNGB, March 5, 1947, OR AG to CNGB, March 12, 1947, GA AG to CNGB, April 2, 1947, MS AG to CNGB, April 25, 1947, SC AG to CNGB, April 25, 1947, KY AG to CNGB, April 29, 1947 Memorandum for Executive Assistant, Legislative and Liaison Division, War Department, Special Staff, April 15, 1947, John H.Ohly to LTG McClain, February 8, 1947, Records of the Army Staff, RG 319, NA; Interview with CPT Carlton G.Epps, equal opportunity officer, NC NG HQ, Raleigh, NC, at his office, July 14, 1974. In addition to LTG Ohly, the other members of the commission were Karl T.Compton, Joseph E. Davies, Anna Rosenberg, Harold W.Dodds, Truman K.Gibson, Jr., Daniel A. Poling, Samuel Y.Rosenman, Edmund A.Walsh, and Charles E.Wilson.

3.  ME AG to CNGB, March 4, 1947, MT AG to CNGB, March 4, 1947, CO AG to CNGB, March 20, 1947, VT AG to CNGB, April 24, 1947, RG 319, NA.

4.  VA AG to CNGB, February 6, 1947, BG Jones to TX AG, March 25, 1947, BG Hill to TX AG, March 26, 1947, MG Weatherred to TX AG, March 27, 1947, TX AAG to CNGB, April 8, 1947.

5.  District AG to CNGB, March 25, 1947, MG Miltonberger to COL Charles A. Mayo, May 6, 1946, COL Nevitt to CNGB, September 12, November 25, 1946, February 13, 1947, COL Myers to District AG, October 21, 1946, COL Peyton to CNGB, October 25, 1946, COL Myers to director, Organization and Training, War Department, November 6, 1946, Director, Organization and Training, War Department, to NGB, November 12, 1946, COL Weeks to district AG, December 13, 1946, CNGB to district AG, May 1, 1947, COL Nevitt to 2nd Army commanding general, August 5, 1947, Circular 26, DC NG HQ, Washington, DC, July 7, 1947, GO 20, DC NG HQ, August 12, 1947, Statement concerning Organization of District of Columbia National Guard, DC NG HQ, March 25, 1947, RG 319, NA; Washington Tribune, October 12, 1946; Pittsburgh Courier, September 7, 1946, February 15, 1947.

6.  CA AG to CNGB, March 6, 1947, December 20, 1948, COL Weeks to Civilian Aide Ray, June 10, 1947, COL Weeks to CA AG, December 4, 1946, June 15, September 20, 1948, MG Kenneth Cramer to CA AG, November 13, 1947, March 31, 1948, Senior Army instructor to 6th Army commanding general, June 8, 1948, MAJ H.J.Johnson to CA AG, June 8, 1948, COL Thomas L.Martin to CA AG, November 20, 1948, MG Raymond H.Fleming to CA AG, December 2, 1948, RG 310, NA; Biennial Report of the AG of California, 1946–1948, pp. 71, 78–79; Biennial Report of the AG of California, 1948–1950, pp. 58, 88.

7.  CNGB to Connecticut Governor Raymond E.Baldwin, May 26, 1946, CT AG to CNGB, March 14, 20, 1947, RG 319, NA.

8.  Illinois Commanding General to IL AG, September 9, 1946, Illinois Commanding General to CNGB, September 9, 10, 12, 1946, COL Weeks to director, Organization and Training, War Department, September 13, 1946, COL Weeks to CNGB, September 16, 1946, CNGB to IL AG, September 17, 1946, LTC Edmond L. O’Neal to CNGB, January 22, February 11, 18, 1947, COL Weeks to IL AG, January 30, February 4, 19, 26, December 19, 1947, CNGB to COL Richard L.Jones, January 19, 1948, RG 319, NA; Illinois State Military and Navy Department, Historical Lineage: Illinois National Guard (Springfield: Allied Printing, 1949), pp. 96–111; Pittsburgh Courier, July 6, 1946.

9.  “8th Infantry,” Illinois Guardsman 6 (April 1939):26; Chicago Defender, March 3, July 4, 18, August 1, 1942; 178th Infantry: Illinois National Guard (Chicago: Black Pride, 1970), passim; Baltimore Afro-American, October 5, 1946.

10.  CNGB to Civilian Aide Ray, June 10, 1947, CNGB to IN AG, January 20, February 3, April 19, 25, 1949, COL Bert S. Wampler to CNGB, December 1, 1949, January 23, 1950, RG 319, NA.

11.  CNGB to Governor Herbert O’Connor, February 6, 1946, CNGB to MD AG, June 17, 1946, COL Myers to MD AG, August 22, 1946, COL E. Leslie Medford, to CNGB, October 1, 1946, MD AG to CNGB, October 3, 1946, MG Reckord to CNGB, March 4, 1947, RG 319, NA; GO 32, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, June 17, 1941; Washington Afro-American, December 27, 1941, August 17, 1946; GO 1, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, November 10, 1944; MAJ William Creigler Personnel Records, AGO, MD NG, Baltimore, MD; Governor O’Connor to MAJ Brady, n.d., LTC Brady Personnel Records, Adjutant General’s Office, MD NG, Baltimore, MD. For other personnel assigned to the 10th, 11th, and 231st Battalions, see GO 49, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, September 10, 1941, GO 54, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, October 16, 1941, GO 58, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, December 4, 1941, GO 8, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, April 13, 1942, GO 14, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, May 23, 1942, GO 35, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, November 12, 1942, GO 5, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, February 2, 1944, GO 22, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, May 8, 1944, GO 32, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, June 30, 1944, GO 38, Maryland State Military Department, Annapolis, MD, September 16, 1944, LTC Medford to MAJ Brady, July 1946, Personnel Roster, 231st Transportation Truck Battalion, April-September 1947, March 1947, Enlistment and Description Book, Maryland Minutemen, AGO, MD NG, Baltimore, MD.

12.  COL Thomas L.Martin to MD AG, June 8, 1948, CNGB to MD AG, December 1948, RG 319, NA.

13.  LTC Hewitt to MA AG, October 30, 1945, Memorandum for MA AG, November 1945, CNGB to MA AG, June 26, 1946, October 6, 29, 1947, March 9, December 30, 1949, LTC Vincent H.Jacobs to CNGB, July 17, 1946, MA AG to CNGB, March 20, July 29, August 19, October 10, 24, November 3, 1947, March 7, 20, December 16, 28, 1949, COL Weeks to MA AG, August 5, October 3, November 5, 1947, ACNGB to director, Organization and Training, War Department, September 11, 1947, LTC S.L.Harding to CNGB, September 29, 1947, RG 319, NA.

14.  MI AG to CNGB, March 4, September 10, 25, 1947, Governor Harry Kelly to CNGB, May 31, 1946, COL Weeks to MI AG, March 25, September 16, October 14, December 30, 1947, February 13, April 20, August 11, October 8, 1948, COL Martin to MI AG, June 17, 1948, COL Phillip C.Pack to CNGB, July 28, 1948, RG 319, NA; Michigan Chronicle, December 14, 1946, January 18, 1947. LTC Felix C. McDavid organized and commanded Michigan’s first African American combat organization authorized by Governor Kim Sigler. He was assisted by CPT William Monroe Womack, CPT Joseph Charles Jenkins, LT Fleming W. Matthews, and WO H.Olaf Tweedle. See the Detroit Free Press, June 12, 1947.

15.  MO AG to CNGB, December 29, 1948, February 7, June 8, 15, December 3, 1949, February 20, 1950, RG 319, NA.

16.  NE AG to CNGB, December 20, 1946, July 16, 1947, CNGB to NE AG, December 30, 1946, July 7, 1947, CNGB to NY AG, September 25, 1947, COL French to COL Geesen, July 22, 1947, CNGB to director, Organization and Training, War Department, October 1947, RG 319, NA.

17.  Bland to Senator Smith, May 8, June 24, 1946, Senator to Secretary of War Patterson, May 18, 1946, Senator Smith to BG Reber, July 1, 1946, COL Weeks to Legislative and Liaison Division, War Department Special Staff, May 22, 1946, Memorandum for Legislative and Liaison Division, War Department Special Staff, July 22, 1946, CNGB to NJ NG, October 16, 1945, July 2, 1946, December 8, 1949, COL Martin to NJ AG, December 16, 20, 1949, RG 319, NA; Baltimore Afro-American, June 1, 1946; Philadelphia Tribune, April 8, 1947, July 23, 1948; GO 43, AGO, Trenton, NJ, September 28, 1949. Units were located in Atlantic City, Camden, Newark, and Trenton, and in Camden, Mercer, and Monmouth Counties.

18.  New York Age, June 7, November 8, December 6, 27, 1941, January 3, 17, February 7, May 16, June 6, August 22, September 12, 26, October 17, 31, 1942, January 1, 1943; AGRNY, 1926, p. 222. For a list of the officers assigned to the 3rd Separate Battalion, see New York Age, January 1, 1943.

19.  NY commanding general to CNGB, May 15, 1946, CNGB to NY AG, May 20, June 19, July 12, 1946, November 13, 1947, January 29, September 8, 1949, BG William Kelly to CNGB, January 13, 1949, NY chief of staff to CNGB, October 10, 1947, December 22, 1948, February 1, October 7, December 9, 20, 1949, January 27, February 1, 1950, NGB to NY AG, January 4, 11, 12, July 20, August 29, September 15, November 2, December 16, 30, 1949, January 16, 1950, CNGB to director, Organization and Training, War Department, December 7, 1949, RG 319, NA; GO 4, AGO, Division of Military and Navy Affairs of the Executive Department, Albany, NY; LTC Robert E. Payne to chief, Historical Division, Special Staff, Department of the Army, June 19, 1950, Historical Records, 569th Transportation Battalion, 569th Armory (formerly 369th Armory), New York, NY; New York Amsterdam News, December 7, 1914. Personnel in the 15th Regiment formed the nucleus of the 369th AAA Regiment. The 3rd Separate Battalion provided personnel for the 715th AAA Battalion, 223rd AAA Group HQ and HQ Battery, and 3629th Ordnance Maintenance Antiaicraft Company.

20.  Baltimore Afro-American, January 26, 1946; New Orleans Weekly Louisianan, March 23, 1946; Philadelphia Tribune, March 23, 1946.

21.  Chicago Defender, October 11, 1941, May 18, 1946; Cleveland Call and Post, October 19, 1946; Philadelphia Tribune, November 5, 1946; BG D.F. Pancoast to CNGB, July 6, August 5, October 11, December 2, 1946, OH AG to CNGB, February 19, 1947, CNGB to OH AG, February 25, October 31, 1947, February 17, November 26, December 13, 1948, May 25, June 6, August 29, September 16, 1949, February 1, 1950, ACNGB to OH AG, June 12, 23, 1947, COL Weeks to OH AG, September 8, October 27, 1947, March 19, 1948, CNGB to director, Organization and Training, War Department, February 19, 1948, director, Organization and Training, War Department, to CNGB, April 20, September 7, 1949, January 23, 1950, COL French to OH AG, May 4, 1949, COL Martin to OH AG, December 27, 1946, September 26, 1950, RG 319, NA; Interview with WO Arthur Terry, Jr., ret., OH NG HQ, Columbus, OH, May 27, 1974; Joseph A, P.Lamothe to Charles Johnson, Jr., June 28, 1979.

22.  Allotment of National Guard Ground Force Units to the State of Pennsylvania, HQ & HQ Detachment, PA NG, May 21, 1946, Pennsylvania governor to CNGB, April 25, 1946, September 23, 1947, PA AG to CNGB, February 19, 21, 25, September 3, October 20, December 8, 1947, March 23, 1948, COL John E.Shade to CNGB, February 21, 1947, COL Richard Snyder to CNGB, May 5, 1947, June 23, 24, 1948, COL Geesen to PA AG, September 8, 1947, Memorandum for MG Cramer, November 17, 1947, CNGB to all state, territory, and district AG, November 26, 1947, CNGB to PA AG, December 9, 1947. June 29, 1948, COL Weeks to PA AG, June 23, 1948, RG 319, NA. The PA AG also requested the formation of a band. For units formed after 1949, see Memorandum for Record, December 4, 1950, RG 319, NA.

23.  BG Murphy to CNGB, July 16, September 10, 16, October 21, 29, 1946, COL Weeks to RI AG, July 24, 1946, CNGB to director, Organization and Training, October 8, 1946, ACNGB to RI AG, November 4, 1946, CNGB to RI AG, November 13, 1946, RG 319, NA.

24.  COL Weeks to A.Ross, January 16, 1947, RG 319, NA.

25.  Biennial Report of the AG of West Virginia, 1941–1942, pp. iv, 227; GO 6, HQ, AGO, Charleston, WV, April 18, 1942; GO 8, HQ, AGO, Charleston, WV, April 25, 1942; Chicago Defender, January 25, February 8, 1941; Washington Afro-American, January 25, 1941.

26.  CPT Gordon, 1LT Leonard Barnett, and 2LT Daniel L.Ferguson for Company B to Representative John Kee, May 7, 1946, William J.L.Wallace to Representative Kee, May 13, 1946, Representative Kee to CNGB, May 24, 1946, CNGB to Representative Kee, May 26, 1946, MG Edward F.Witsell to Representative Cleveland M.Bailey, May 22, 1946, RG 319, NA.

27.  BG Charles R.Fox to CNGB, July 17, 1946, November 9, 1949, COL Weeks to WV AG, July 22, 1946, CNGB to WV AG, August 21, 30, 1946, December 9, 1948, November 8, 1949, Governor Patteson to CNGB, November 14, 1949, CNGB to Governor Patteson, November 18, 1949, WV AAG to CNGB, December 2, 1949, COL French to WV AG, August 29, November 15, 1949, COL Martin to CNGB, December 1, 1949, RG 319, NA

28.  Dalfiume, Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces, p. 159.

29.  Director, Organization and Training, War Department General Staff, June 23, 1947, RG 319, NA

30.  White to Secretary of War Patterson, February 15, 1947, Secretary of War Patterson to White, February 15, 1947, Franklin H.Williams to CNGB, March 27, 1947, COL Geesen to Williams, April 4, 1947, RG 319, NA; Dalfiume, Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces, pp. 159–60.

31.  Memorandum, Secretary of the Army Royall to the Press, February 8, 1947, Nash File; Dalfiume, Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces, p. 159; Florence Murray, ed., The Negro Handbook (New York: Macmillan, 1949), pp. 266–67; New York Times, February 5, 9, 1948.

32.  Memorandum to the Secretary of Defense for the CNGB, April 12, 1949, Memorandum for COL Ervin, April 14, 1949, John W.Martin to Gilbert A. Harrison, May 3, 1949, Alfred B.Lewis to Secretary of Defense Kenneth C.Royall, January 17, 1949, RG 319, NA; Governor James L.McDonaughy to President Truman, February 9, 1948, Governor James L.McDonaughy Correspondence, Connecticut State Archives, Hartford, CT; Dalfiume, Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces, pp. 160–61; Hartford Times, February 19, 1947; Pittsburgh Courier, February 22, 1947; New York People’s Voice, March 1, 1947; McDonaughy to Chester Bowles, n.d., Philleo Nash File, Harry S Truman Papers, Independence, MO. Hereafter, the Philleo Nash File, Harry S Truman Papers will be cited as the Nash File.

33.  Governor Culbert L.Olson to CA AG, January 15, 24, 1942, Assemblyman Sawallisch to W.W.Brown, January 13, 14, 1942, Will W.Brown to Frank D. Reeves, March 5, 1942, NAACP Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, DC; Chicago Defender, January 10, March 7, 1942.

34.  Baltimore Afro-American, March 23, 1946; Pittsburgh Courier, April 6, 1946, January 11, February 15, 1947; Norfolk Journal and Guide, September 14, 1946; California Eagle, January 16, 1947.

35.  CA AG to CNGB, October 14, 1946, CNGB to CA AG, October 24, 1946, Melvin H.Carter to California Governor Earl M.Warren, April 8, 1947, Memorandum for Assistant Secretary of the Army Gordon Gray, April 14, 1949, CNGB to Senator Kenneth S.Wherry, April 28, 1949, Henderson to Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson, July 11, 1949, Memorandum for the secretary of the army, July 14, 1949, Memorandum for the secretary of defense, July 28, 1949, CNGB to Representative Scribner, July 29, 1949, IL AG to CNGB, August 10,1949, VA AG to CNGB, November 9, 1949, CNGB to BG John F.Mullen, June 19, 1949, RG 319, NA

36.  Richard M.Dalfiume, “The Fahy Committee and the Desegregation of the Armed Forces,” Historian 31 (November 1968):1, 3; Dalfiume, Desegregation of theU.S. Forces, pp. 171, 175–76; John P. Davis, “The Negro in the Armed Forces of America,” in John P.Davis, ed., The American Negro Reference Book (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967), p. 652.

37.  Testimony before The President’s Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, April 26, 1949; Admiral Fred A. Sondermann to secretary of the army, June 6, 1948, Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Army, RG 335, NA.

38.  Memorandum, Donald S. Dawson for the President, September 9, 1948, Nash File; National Defense Conference on Negro Affairs, The Pentagon, Washington, DC, April 26, 1946, RG 335, NA. The committee members were Sadie T.M.Alexander, John W.Davis, Truman K.Gibson, the J.W.Gregg, Charles Houston, John H.Johnson, Mordecai Johnson, Ira F.Lewis, Benjamin E.Mays, Loren Miller, Hopson E.Reynolds, Channing H.Tobias, Walter White, and P.B. Young. Mary McLeod Bethune and Willard Townsend were unable to accept the invitation to participate in this conference.

39.  Memorandum, Philleo Nash for Clark M.Clifford, April 9, 1918, Memorandum, Clifford for the President, April 9, 1948, Nash Files.

40.  Memorandum, MG Clark L.Ruffner to Karl Bendetsen, March 13, 1950, RG 335, NA.



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African American Soldiers in the National Guard -- : Recruitment and Deployment During Peacetime and War

MLA

"Postwar Reorganization and Realignment." African American Soldiers in the National Guard : Recruitment and Deployment During Peacetime and War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992. The African American Experience. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2 Sep 2014. <http://testaae.greenwood.com/doc.aspx?fileID=JBS&chapterID=JBS-906&path=books/greenwood>

Chicago Manual of Style

"Postwar Reorganization and Realignment." In African American Soldiers in the National Guard : Recruitment and Deployment During Peacetime and War, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992. The African American Experience. Greenwood Publishing Group. http://testaae.greenwood.com/doc.aspx?fileID=JBS&chapterID=JBS-906&path=books/greenwood. (accessed September 2, 2014).