History of Black Americans

From the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom to the Eve of the Compromise of 1850
Philip S. Foner

Bibliography and Sources

1. AMERICAN HISTORIANS AND ANTEBELLUM SLAVERY

Ulrich B. Phillips and the Phillips School

For James Ford Rhodes’ racist views, see History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the Final Restoration of Home Rule to the South in 1877 (New York, 1892–1906), 1:26, 303, 379, 380; 7:485, and Robert Cruden, “James Ford Rhodes and the Negro: A Study in the Problem of Objectivity,” Ohio History 7 (Spring 1962): 129–37. A complete list of Ulrich Bonnell Phillips’ writings may be found in David M. Potter, Jr., comp., “A Bibliography of the Printed Writings of Ulrich Bonnell Phillips,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 18 (September 1934): 270–82; Fred Landon and Everett E. Edwards, comps., “A Bibliography of the Writings of Professor Ulrich Bonnell Phillips,” Agricultural History 7 (October 1934): 196–218. Accounts of Phillips’ life are in Wood Gray, “Ulrich Bonnell Phillips,” in W. T. Hutchinson, ed., The Marcus W. Jernegan Essays in American Historiography (Chicago, 1937), pp. 357–73; E. Merton Coulter, “Ulrich Bonnell Phillips,” Dictionary of American Biography 21 (Supplement 1): 597–98; Wendell Holmes Stephenson, The South Lives in History: Southern Historians and Their Legacy (Baton Rouge, La., 1955), chap. 3, “Ulrich B. Phillips: Historian of Aristocracy,” pp. 58–94. Phillips’ views are summarized in E. Merton Coulter, ed., The Cause of the South to Secession: An Interpretation by Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (New York and London, 1939); Sam E. Salem, “U. B. Phillips and the Scientific Tradition,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 44 (June 1960): 172–85; Daniel Joseph Singal, “Ulrich B. Phillips: The Old South as the New,” Journal of American History 43 (March 1977): 871–95: Allan M. Winkler, “Ulrich Bonnell Phillips: A Reappraisal,” South Atlantic Quarterly 71 (Spring 1972): 234–48; Ruth Hutchinson Crocker, “Ulrich B. Phillips: A Southern Historian Reconsidered,” Louisiana Studies 15 (Summer 1976): 113–30; Ruben F. Kugler, “U. B. Phillips’ Use of Sources,” Journal of Negro History 47 (Spring 1962): 153–68; and Burton M. Smith, “A Study of American Historians and Their Interpretation of Negro Slavery in the United States” (Ph.D. diss., Washington State University, 1970), pp. 61–75. In presenting Phillips’ views on slavery, I have relied mainly on American Negro Slavery: A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor asDetermined by the Plantation Regime (New York and London, 1918) since the chapter in his Life and Labor in the Old South (Boston, 1929) is largely drawn from the earlier volume.

Criticism of Phillips

W.E.B. Du Bois’ review of American Negro Slavery appears in American Political Science Review 12 (November 1918): 722–23; the review by Carter G. Woodson is in Mississippi Valley Historical Review 5 (March 1919): 480–82. See also John David Smith, “Du Bois and Phillips—Symbolic Antagonists of the Progressive Era,” Centennial Review 24 (Winter 1980): 88–102. State histories of slavery written by Phillips’ disciples include Ralph Flanders, Plantation Slavery in Georgia (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1933); Charles S. Sydnor, Slavery in Mississippi (New York, 1933); J. Winston Coleman, Slavery Times in Kentucky (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1935); V. Alton Moody, Slavery on Louisiana Sugar Plantations (Baton Rouge, La., 1924); Caleb E. Patterson, The Negro in Tennessee, 1790–1865 (Austin, Tex., 1927). For Ramsdell, see Charles W. Ramsdell, “The Natural Limits of Slavery Expansion,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 16 (September 1929): 151–71. Frederick Bancroft’s criticism of Phillips may be found in his Slave Trading in the Old South (Baltimore, 1931), pp. 68, 271, 208, 235, 298. For the works on slave resistance, see Joseph S. Carroll, Slave Insurrections in the United States, 1800–1865 (Boston, 1938); Raymond A. Bauer and Alice H. Bauer, “Day to Day Resistance to Slavery,” Journal of Negro History 27 (October 1942): 388–419, and Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts (New York, 1943). Aptheker’s criticism of Phillips is on pp. 13, 16. Hofstadter’s criticism is in Richard Hofstadter, “U. B. Phillips and the Plantation Legend,” Journal of Negro History 29 (April 1944): 109–44, and John Hope Franklin’s is in his From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans (New York, 1947), pp. 167–68, 178–79, 181–82, 184, 210. For Morison and Commager, see Samuel Eliot Morison and Henry Steele Commager, The Growth of the American Republic, 4th ed. (New York, 1950), 1:537. Lewis C. Gray’s differences with Phillips on the unprofitability of slavery may be found in his History of Agriculture in the Southern States to 1860 (Washington, D.C., 1933), 1:470–71, 473, 474–75, 476–78; 2:33–34, 940–42. For the work of the Owsley school, see especially Frank L. Owsley, Plain Folk of the Old South (Baton Rouge, La., 1949); Frank L. Owsley and Harriet C. Owsley, “The Economic Basis of Society in the Late Ante-Bellum South,” Journal of Economic History 6 (February 1940): 24–45; and “The Economic Structure of Rural Tennessee, 1850–1860,” Journal of Southern History 8 (May 1942): 161–82. For Govan’s views, see Thomas P. Govan, “Was Plantation Slavery Profitable?” Journal of Southern History 8 (November 1942): 513–35.

Kenneth M. Stampp’s The Peculiar Institution

For Stampp’s early criticism of Phillips, see Kenneth M. Stampp, “The Historian and Southern Negro Slavery,” American Historical Review 57 (April 1952): 13–24. The discussion of Stampp’s views on slavery is based on his The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (New York, 1956). A brief summary of some of his views may be found in Smith, op. cit., pp. 97–100. For criticism of Stampp’s views, see Bennett H. Wall, “African Slavery,” in Arthur S. Link and Robert W. Patrick, eds., Writing Southern History: Essays in Historiography in Honor of Fletcher M. Green (Baton Rouge, La., 1962), pp. 182–83.

Stanley M. Elkins’ Slavery

For Elkins’ fundamental thesis, see Stanley M. Elkins, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (Chicago, 1959), pp. 102, 104, 118, 119–22, 123–31, 137–39. For a review praising Elkins, see Sidney Mintz in American Anthropologist 63 (Spring 1961): 579–85. For critical responses, see “The Question of ‘Sambo,’ ” Newberry Library Bulletin 5 (December 1958): 14–41; Harvey Wish in Mississippi Valley Historical Review 47 (September 1960): 319–20, and especially Ann J. Lane, ed., The Debate over Slavery: Stanley Elkins and His Critics (Urbana, Ill., 1971). Stampp’s conclusion on the validity of the Sambo hypothesis is in Kenneth M. Stampp, “Rebels and Sambos: The Search for the Negro’s Personality in Slavery,” Journal of Southern History (August 1971): 368.

Eugene D. Genovese and Slavery

For Stephenson’s judgment on Phillips’ lack of objectivity, see Stephenson, op. cit., p. 62, and for the view that Phillips was no worse or even better than others in the Progressive era, see Singal, op. cit., p. 895. Eugene D. Genovese’s defense of Phillips may be found in Eugene D. Genovese, Foreword to American Negro Slavery (Baton Rouge, La., 1967); Introduction to The Slave Economy of the Old South: Selected Essays in Economic and Social History (Baton Rouge, La., 1968); “Race and Class in Southern History: An Appraisal of the Work of Ulrich Bonnell Phillips,” Agricultural History 41 (October 1967): 345–58, and Elinor Miller and Eugene D. Genovese, eds., Plantation Town, and Country: Essays in the Local History of American Slave Society (Urbana, Ill., 1974).

Most of the material is drawn from Eugene D. Genovese, The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South (New York, 1961), esp. pp. 3, 4, 7, 26–28, 34–36, 43–61, 180–208, but some of it also appears in his The World the Slaveholders Made (New York, 1969), pp. 21, 195–202, and in his In Red and Black: Marxian Explorations in Southern and Afro-American History (New York, 1971), pp. 21, 23, 276–95. For Gramsci, see John Cammett, Antonio Gramsci and the Origins of Italian Communism (Palo Alto, Calif., 1967). The article by Alfred H. Conrad and John A. Meyer is “The Economics of Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South,” Journal of Political Economy 66 (Fall 1958): 95–130. Thomas P. Gowan’s review of The Political Economy of Slavery appeared in Journal of Southern History 31 (May 1969): 230–34; Stampp’s review of The World the Slaveholders Made is in Agricultural History 44 (October 1970): 409–10, and Arthur Zilversmith’s is in Labor History 22 (Spring 1970): 367–70.

For Genovese’s earlier views on black resistance and slave militancy, see his “The Legacy of Slavery and the Roots of Black Nationalism,” Studies on the Left 6 (Fall 1967): 3–26, 55–65. For his changed views, see Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York, 1974), pp. xv, xvi, 161, 284, 659. For critiques of Genovese’s Marxism, see Herbert Aptheker, “Comment,” Studies on the Left 6 (Fall 1967): 27–34; Donald M. Bluestone, “Marxism without Marx,” Science and Society 33 (Spring 1970): 231–43; Robert M. Krim, “Eugene D. Genovese, An Historian and His Historiography” (honors paper, University of California, Berkeley, 1971); and Herbert Shapiro, “Eugene Genovese and the Study of Slavery” (Paper presented at the 1979 meeting of the Organization of American Historians) and published as “Genovese, Marxism and the Study of Slavery,” Journal of Ethnic Studies 9 (Winter 1982): 87–100. For criticism of Genovese’s paternalism theory, see Paul D. Escott, Slavery Remembered: A Record of Twentieth Century Slave Narratives (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1979), and James Oakes, The Ruling Race:A History of American Slaveholders (New York, 1982). See also Martin A. Kilian and E. Lynn Tatom, “Marx, Hegel, and the Marxian of the Master Class: Eugene D. Genovese on Slavery,” Journal of Negro History 66 (Fall 1981): 189–203. Other critics of Genovese, apart from those already mentioned, include James D. Anderson, “Aunt Jemima in Dialectics: Genovese on Slave Culture,” Journal of Negro History 61 (1976): 94–114, and Earl Smith, “Roll, Apology, Roll!” a review of Roll, Jordan, Roll, in A Freedomways Reader: Afro-America in the Seventies, ed. Ernest Kaiser (New York, 1977), pp. 175–79.

Time on the Cross

The exposition of the themes in Time on the Cross is based on Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, Time on the Cross, Vol. 1: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, pp. 49, 115, 130, 133, 239, 259; Vol. 2: Evidence and Methods (Boston, 1974). For a detailed survey of the reception to Time on the Cross and a summary of reviews, see Charles Crowe, “Time on the Cross: The Historical Monograph as Pop Event,” History Teacher 9 (August 1976): 588–630. Reviews mentioned in the discussion include Peter Russell’s in New York Times Book Review, April 28, 1974; C. Vann Woodward, New York Review of Books, May 2, 1974; Herbert Aptheker, “Heavenly Days in Dixie,” Political Affairs 53 (June–July 1974): 40–54, 44–57; Eric Foner, Labor History 16 (Winter 1976): 127–38; Paul A. David, Herbert Gutman, Richard Sutch, Peter Temin, and Gavin Wright, Reckoning with Slavery (New York, 1976); Herbert G. Gutman, Slavery and the Numbers Game: A Critique of Time on the Cross (Urbana, Ill., 1975). Gutman’s monograph is an expanded version of his article, “The World Two Cliometricians Made,” Journal of Negro History 60 (January 1975): 53–227. For critical reviews by blacks, see Lloyd Hogan in Review of Black Political Economy 5 (1975): 103–4; Black Books Bulletin 7 (1975): 68–72; Brenda C. Jones in Freedomways 15 (1975): 26–33; Mildred C. Fierce in Phylon 36 (March 1975): 89–91; Julius Lester in New Politics 11 (1975): 93; Ted Bassett in Daily World (New York), September 12, 1974, and John W. Blassingame, “The Mathematics of Slavery,” Atlantic Monthly 118 (August 1974): 78–82. For support of the dissenting reviews, see Thomas C. Maskell, “The True and Tragic History of Time on the Cross,” New York Review of Books, October 2, 1975, 33–39.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

For a discussion of post-World War I scholarship on slavery, see David Brion Davis, “Slavery and the Post-World War II Historians,” Daedalus 103 (1947): 1–16. In addition to the books cited above, the list of significant studies published in the 1970s includes David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770–1823 (Ithaca and London, 1975); Peter H. Wood, Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellions (New York, 1974); Ira Berlin, Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (New York, 1974); John W. Blassingame, The Slave Community; Plantation Life in the Antebellum South (New York, 1972); Leslie Howard Owen, This Species of Property: Slave Life and Culture in the Old South (New York, 1976); Herbert G. Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750–1925 (New York, 1976). Among the leading historians of slavery in this period, in addition to those mentioned above, were Robert S. Starobin, Willie Lee Rose, Lawrence Levine, Earl Thorpe, Sterling Stuckey, Mina Davis Caufield, Roy S. Bryce-Laporte, Franklin W. Knight, Carl Degler, and Gilbert Osofsky.

For the history of the slave testimony collection, see Lawrence D. Reddick, “A New Interpretation for Negro History,” Journal of Negro History 22 (January 1937): 1–20; Benjamin A. Botkin, “The Slave as His Own Interpreter,” Library of Congress Quarterly Journal of Current Acquisitions 2 (November 1944): 30–48; Norman R. Yetman, “The Background of the Slave Narrative Collection,” American Quarterly 19 (Fall 1963): 530–54; Randall M. Miller, “When Lions Write History: Slave Testimony and the History of American Slavery,” Research Studies 44 (March 1976): 13–23. The volumes edited by Rawick are George P. Rawick, ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, series 1–2 (Westport, Conn., 1972). Blassingame’s discussion is in John Blassingame, “Using the Testimony of Ex-Slaves: Approaches and Problems,” Journal of Southern History 41 (November 1975): 473–92, which is also part of the introduction to the work he edited: Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters,. Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies (Baton Rouge, La., 1977). Another collection worth consulting is Robert S. Starobin, ed., Blacks in Bondage: Letters of American Slaves (New York, 1974). Useful discussions appear in Frances Smith Foster, Witnessing Slavery: The Development of Antebellum Slave Narratives (Westport, Conn., 1979); Paul D. Escott, Slavery Remembered: A Record of Twentieth-Century Slave Narratives (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1979), and David Thomas Bailey, “A Divided Prism: Two Sources of Black Testimony on Slavery,” Journal of Southern History 46 (November 1980): 381–404.

For discussion of the slave drivers, see William L. Van Deburg, The Slave Drivers: Black Agricultural Labor Supervisors in the Antebellum South (Westport, Conn., 1979), and the review by Melvin Drimmer in Journal of Negro History 65 (Winter 1980): 80–83.

For criticism of studies of slave culture on the issue of time and space, see Herbert G. Gutman, “Slave Culture and Slave Family and Kin Network: The Importance of Time,” South Atlantic Urban Studies 2 (1978): 73–88, and Ira Berlin, “Time, Space, and the Evolution of Afro-American Society on British Mainland North America,” American Historical Review 85 (February 1980): 44–78.

An interesting discussion of the recent literature on slavery is Bruce Collins, “American Slavery and Its Consequences,” Historical Journal (Cambridge, England) 22 (December 1979): 997–1015.

2. RISE OF THE COTTON KINGDOM

The Industrial Revolution

For the development of the factory system in cotton textiles in the United States, see W. R. Bagnall, Samuel Slater and the Early Development of Cotton Manufacture in the United States (Middletown, Conn., 1890); Caroline F. Ware, The Early New England Cotton Manufacture (Boston, 1931); and Victor S. Clark, History of Manufactures in the United States (New York, 1939), 1:379–80.

Attempts to develop a cotton gin before Whitney are discussed in Daniel H. Thomas, “Pre-Whitney Cotton Gins in French Louisiana,” Journal of Southern History 31 (May 1965): 135–48; Jeanette Mirsky and Allan Nevins, in The World of Eli Whitney (New York, 1968), present a detailed treatment of Whitney’s two great enterprises, the cotton gin and the manufacture of small arms for the U.S. government. See also Brother O. Edward, “Eli Whitney: Embattled Inventor,” American History Illustrated (February 1974): 4–9, 44–47. For the story of Catherine Greene’s being the inventor of the cotton gin, see Boston Globe June 29, 1980.

Westward Expansion

The expansion of cotton production to the Southwest is discussed in Ulrich Bonnell Phillips, American Negro Slavery (New York, 1918), pp. 39, 171–78; Lewis Cecil Gray, History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860 (Gloucester, Mass., 1958), 2:691, 698–99, 895; and Clement Eaton, The Growth of Southern Civilization, 1790–1860 (New York, 1961), pp. 44–46. For the removal of the Indians, see Michael Paul Rogin, Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indians (New York, 1974); Mary E. Young, “Indian Removal and Allotment: The Civilized Tribes and Jacksonian Justice,” American Historical Review 74 (February 1971): 99–118.

The Illegal African Slave Trade

The illegal African slave trade is discussed in W.E.B. Du Bois, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638–1870 (Millwood, N.Y., 1973), pp. 109–12, 162–66, and Warren S. Howard, American Slavers and the Federal Law, 1837–1862 (Berkeley, Calif., 1963), pp. 26–28. For differing views on the extent of the illegal trade, see Du Bois, op. cit., pp. 119–23; 178; W. H. Collins, The Domestic Slave Trade of the Southern States (New York, 1904), pp. 12–20; Peter Dugnan and Clarence Clendenen, The United States and the African Slave Trade, 1619–1862 (Stanford, Calif., 1963), pp. 9–10; Daniel P. Mannix and Malcolm Cowley, Black Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1518–1865 (New York, 1962), pp. 266–68; Howard, op. cit., pp. 256–57; Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution (New York, 1956), p. 271; Phillips, American Negro Slavery, pp. 147–48; Eugene D. Genovese, “American Slaves and Their History,” New York Review of Books, December 3, 1970, 35. The African Squadron is discussed in Robert S. Wetherall, “The African Squadron, 1843–1861” (master’s thesis, University of Delaware, 1968).

For the effect of the panic of 1819 on the South, see Francis Butler Simkins, A History of the South (New York, 1967), p. 97.

The Domestic Slave Trade

The decline of tobacco production is discussed in Joseph Clarke Robert, The Tobacco Kingdom (Gloucester, Mass., 1965), pp. 136–41, who, however, contends that the extent of the decline has been exaggerated because of an error in calculating hogsheads in view of the fact that the hogshead had become larger since the American Revolution. Gray, op. cit., 2:767, makes the decline clear, however, as do Edward S. Abdy, Journal of a Residence and Tour in the United States of America, From April, 1833 to October, 1834 (New York, 1969), 2:183, and H. C. Carey, The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign: Why It Exists and How It May Be Extinguished (Philadelphia, 1862), p. 103. For the description of the slave coffle, see James Silk Buckingham, Slave States of America (New York, 1968), 2:553.

Evaluations of the extent of the internal slave trade are to be found in W. H. Collins, The Domestic Slave Trade of the Southern States (Port Washington, N.Y., 1904), pp. 61–77; Frederick Bancroft, Slave Trading in the Old South (Baltimore, 1931), pp. 383–85; Stampp, op. cit., p. 238.

The challenge to the traditional view of the extent of the domestic slave trade appears in William Calderhead, “How Extensive was the Border State Slave Trade? A New Look,” Civil War History 18 (March 1972): 42–55; Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, Time on the Cross (Boston, 1974), 1:46–48. For the figures on slave trading in Alexandria, see Michael A. Ridgeway, “A Peculiar Business: Slave Trading in Alexandria, Virginia, 1825–1861” (master’s thesis, Georgetown University, 1976), pp. 156–57.

Organization of the Domestic Slave Trade

The most extensive discussion of the organization and mechanics of the slave trade is contained in Frederic Bancroft’s Slave Trading in the Old South. Shorter accounts can be found in Phillips, American Negro Slavery, pp. 187–204, Stampp, op. cit., pp. 237–45, and Collins, op. cit., pp. 120–24. For a contemporary account, see Ethan A. Andrews, Slavery and the Domestic Slave Trade in the United States (Boston, 1836). A recent study is Robert Evans, Jr., “Some Economic Aspects of the Domestic Slave Trade, 1830–1860,” Southern Economic Journal 27 (April 1961): 329–37. The discussion of the organization of the slave trade in Alexandria, Virginia is based on Ridgeway, op. cit., Wendell Holmes Stephenson, Isaac Franklin, Slave Trader and Planter of the Old South (Gloucester, Mass., 1968), Moncure D. Conway, Testimonies Concerning Slavery (London, 1865), and William T. Laprade, “The Domestic Slave Trade in the District of Columbia,” Journal of Negro History 11 (January 1926). For the protest of the Benevolent Society of Alexandria for Ameliorating and Improving the Condition of the People of Color, see Alexandria Gazette, June 22, 1827.

The shipment of slaves to the Deep South by ships is discussed in Ridgeway, op. cit., pp. 58–62, and Charles H. Wesley, “Manifests of Slave Shipments along the Waterways 1808–1864,” Journal of Negro History 28 (April 1942). The description of the slave coffle by a British visitor is in G. W. Feathersonhaugh, Excursion through the Slave States (London, 1844), 1:119–22. Charles Ball’s account of a slave coffle is in Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball, a Black Man (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1854), pp. 30–85. Reverend W. B. Allen’s reminiscences are in J. Ralph Jones, “Portraits of Georgia Slaves,” edited by Tom Landess, Georgia Review 16 (May 1972): 268. For William Wells Brown’s description, see Narrative of William Wells Brown, a Fugitive Slave, Written by Himself (New York, 1855), pp. 50–51. For the use of railroads in the domestic slave trade, see Frederick Law Olmsted, A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States with Remarks on Their Economy (New York, 1859), pp. 55–56; Bancroft, op. cit., pp. 289–91; Charles W. Turner, “Railroad Service to Virginia Farmers, 1828–1836,” Agricultural History 22 (October 1948): 240–42.

For New Orleans as a major slave trading city, see Bancroft, op. cit., pp. 113, 312; “Slave Market of New Orleans,” Chambers’s Edinburgh Review, n.s. 16, July 19, 1851, pp. 47–48; Richard C. Wade, Slavery in the Cities: The South 1820–1860 (New York, 1967), pp. 198–200, and Judith Kelleher Schafer, “New Orleans Slavery in 1850 as Seen in Advertisements,” Journal of Southern History 47 (February 1981): 33–56. The discussion of the slave pens and the slave auctions is based on a wide variety of material including the following slave narratives: Ball, op. cit., pp. 72–73; William Anderson, Life and Narrative of William Anderson, or Dark Deeds of American Slavery Revealed, Written by Himself (Chicago, 1857), pp. 14–16; John Brown, Slave Life in Georgia: A Narrative of Life, Suffering and Escape of John Brown, A Fugitive Slave, New in England, edited by L. A. Chamerovzow (London, 1855), pp. 123–24; Josiah Henson, The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself to Samuel Eliot (Boston, 1849), pp. 11–13; Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave, with a new introduction by Philip S. Foner (New York, 1970), pp. 78–82; Henry Watson, Narrative of Henry Watson, a Fugitive Slave (Boston, 1850), pp. 8–9. For a case involving warranties of soundness, see 15 Missouri 453 (1853).

The determination of slave prices is discussed in Phillips, op. cit., pp. 368–75, and Eugene D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll (New York, 1970), pp. 390–92. The prices of slaves in the 1830s and 1840s are set forth in Ridgeway, op. cit., pp. 42, 70, 102. Specific sales cited are in the University of Virginia Slave Trade Papers, Gilliam Family Papers, Harris-Brady Collection, Morton-Halsey Papers. The list of prices in 1853 is in Gray, op. cit., 2:790. For the prices from 1849 through 1860 in the lower South and New Orleans, see Robert Evans, Jr., “The Economics of American Negro Slavery, 1830–1860,” in Aspects of Labor Economies, A Conference of the UniversitiesNational Bureau Committee for Economic Research (Princeton, N.J., 1962), pp. 199, 202, and Randolph Campbell, “Local Archives as a Source of Slave Prices, Harrison County, Texas as a Test Case,” Historian 36 (August 1974): 660–69. The prices for the Pierce Butler sale are in Manuscript Catalogue of Pierce Butler’s Share of the Slaves to be Sold at Auction, with Appraised Prices, Savannah, February 21, 1859.

For the effect of high prices on stealing of blacks, see Earl W. Fanell, “The Abduction of Free Negroes and Slaves in Texas,” Southwest Historical Quarterly (January 1957): 385–86, and Norman R. Yetman, ed., Voices from Slavery (New York, 1970), p. 206. Fanell is also the scholar who argues that the rise in prices was “a blessing” to the slave.

Slave Breeding

Thomas Jefferson’s letter is published in Edwin M. Betts, ed., Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book with Commentary and Relative Extracts from Other Writings (Princeton, N. J., 1953), p. 43. The statements of Thomas Drew, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, and Edmund Ruffin are in Henry Wilson, Rise and Fall of the Slave Power (New York, 1962), 1:100–101, and John Elliott Cairnes, The Slave Power: Its Character, Career and Probable Designs, 2d ed. (London, 1863), pp. 127–28. Edward S. Abdy’s comment is in his Journal of a Residence and Tour in the United States of America from April, 1833 to October, 1834 (London, 1835), 2:90, and Olmsted’s appears in Olmsted, op. cit., pp. 57–58, 60–61. Fanny Kemble’s comment is quoted in Herbert G. Gutman, Slavery and the Numbers Game: A Critique of Time on the Cross (Urbana, Ill., 1975), pp. 97–98. For the accounts in the autobiographies of ex-slaves, see Fisk University, Unwritten History of Slavery: Autobiographical Account of Negro Ex-Slaves (Nashville, Tenn., 1962), pp. 1–2; Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself (Boston, 1854), p. 45; and J. Ralph Jones, “Portraits of Georgia Slaves,” Georgia Review 22 (October 1970): 407.

For twentieth-century historians, see Bancroft, op. cit., pp. 67–68; Stampp, op. cit., pp. 241–51; Alfred H. Conrad and John R. Meyer, “The Economics of Slavery in the Ante Bellum South,” Journal of Political Economy 66 (April 1958): 82, 112–14; Richard C. Sutch, “The Breeding of Slaves for Sale and the Westward Expansion of Slavery, 1850–1860,” in Stanley L. Engerman and Eugene D. Genovese, eds., Race and Slavery in the Western Hemisphere: Quantitative Studies (Princeton, N.J., 1975), 175–240; Gutman, op. cit., p. 97. For critics of the slave breeding thesis, see Gray, op. cit., pp. 662–63; J. G. Randall and David Donald, The Civil War and Reconstruction, 2d ed. (Lexington, Mass., 1969), p. 65; Fogel and Engerman, op. cit., p. 78; Richard G. Lowe and Randolph B. Campbell, “The Slave-Breeding Hypothesis: A Demographic Comment on the ‘Buying’ and ‘Selling’ States,” Journal of Southern History 42 (August 1976): 401–12.

Separation of Families

Blassingame’s conclusion is in John Blassingame, The Slave Community (New York, 1972), p. 89. See also Justin Labingjohn, “The Sexual Life of the Oppressed: An Examination of the Family Life of Ante-Bellum Slaves,” Phylon 35 (1974): 394–95. Stampp’s analysis is in Stampp, op. cit., pp. 204, 257–58. For Fogel and Engerman, see Time on the Cross, 1:49. For criticism of their conclusions, see Sutch, op. cit., p. 174, and Gutman, op. cit., pp. 10–13. See also Genovese, op. cit., p. 332. For ex-slaves’ accounts of separation of families, see John Thompson, The Life of John Thompson, A Fugitive Slave, Containing His History of Twenty-Five Years in Bondage and His Providential Escape (Worcester, Mass., 1856), p. 112; Brown, op. cit., pp. 89–90; An Autobiography of the Rev. Josiah Henson (London, 1877), p. 18–19; Northup, op cit., pp. 85–87; Lydia Maria Child, Authentic Anecdotes of American Slavery (Newburyport, Mass., 1838), p. 18. For Still’s account, see William Still, Underground Rail Records, Revised, with a Life of the Author … (Philadelphia, 1872), p. 111. For the callous remark on the temporary nature of the “disconsolate” state of the Negroes whose families had been separated, see Willie Rose, ed., A Documentary History of Slavery in North America (New York, 1976), p. 377.

The Missouri case involving the gift of the watch is Fodden v. Hendrick, 25 Mo. 411 (1854). For the Charleston Presbytery, see Haven P. Perkins, “Religion For Slaves: Difficulties and Methods,” Church History 11 (September 1941): 238–39.

Two recent studies depicting the tragic aspects of the domestic slave trade are Donald M. Sweig, “Reassessing the Human Dimension of the Interstate Slave Trade,” Prologue 12 (Spring 1980): 5–21, and Schafer, op. cit., pp. 33–56.

3. URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL SLAVERY

Urban Slavery

The two major books on slavery in the cities are Richard C. Wade, Slavery in the Cities (New York, 1964), and Claudia Dale Golden, Urban Slavery in the American South, 1820–1860: A Quantitative Study (Chicago and London, 1976). The two scholars disagree as to the reasons for the decline of urban slavery between 1850 and 1860. Specialized articles dealing with urban slavery are: Terry L. Seip, “Slaves and Free Negroes in Alexandria, 1850–1860,” Louisiana History 32 (Spring 1969): 148–65; Robert C. Reinders, “Slavery in New Orleans before the Civil War,” Mid-America 44 (1962): 215–24; William L. Richter, “Slavery in Baton Rouge, 1820–1860,” Louisiana History 32 (Spring 1969): 131–42; Clement Eaton, “Slave-Hiring in the Upper South: A Step toward Freedom,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 46 (March 1960): 663–78; Jane Riblett Wilkie, “The Black Urban Population of the Pre-Civil War South,” Phylon 37 (September 1976): 250–62. See also Edna Bonacich, “A Theory of Ethnic Antagonism: The Split Labor Market,” American Sociological Review 37 (October 1972): 547–49. Herman C. Woessner, “New Orleans, 1840–1860: A Study in Urban Slavery” (Ph.D. diss., Louisiana State University, 1967), directly challenges the assumption that the viability of slavery was dependent on the plantation. See also Claudia Goldin, “A Model to Explain the Relative Decline of Urban Slavery,” in Eugene D. Genovese and Stanley L. Engerman, eds., Race and Slavery in the Western Hemisphere (Princeton, N.J., 1975).

Slave Hiring

The hiring system is discussed in Wade, op. cit.; Robert Evans, Jr., “The Economics of American Negro Slavery, 1830–1860” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1959); Clement Eaton, “Slave-Hiring in the Upper South,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 46 (March 1960); Richard B. Morris, “The Measure of Bondage in Slave States,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 41 (March 1954); Robert S. Starobin, Industrial Slavery in the Old South (New York, 1970); Frederic Bancroft, Slave Trading in the Old South (Baltimore, 1931); and Maximilian Reichard, “Black and White on the Urban Frontier: The St. Louis Community in Transition, 1800–1830,” Missouri Historical Society, bulletin 33 (October 1976). For the origins of slave hiring in the eighteenth century, see Sarah S. Hughes, “Slaves for Hire: The Allocation of Black Labor in Elizabeth City County, Virginia, 1782 to 1810,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 35 (April 1978): 260–86; EdnaChappel, “Self-Hire among Slaves, 1820–1860” (Ph.D. diss., University of Pittsburgh, 1973).

Industrial Slavery

The view that slaves were not suited for industrial work is discussed in Clement Eaton, A History of the Old South (New York, 1949), pp. 424–29. The work of Robert S. Starobin is summed up in his Industrial Slavery. However, see also his “The Economics of Industrial Slavery in the Old South,” Business History Review 44 (Summer 1970): 131–74, “Disciplining Industrial Slaves in the Old South,” Journal of Negro History 53 (April 1968): 111–28, and “Race Relations in Old South Industries,” in Allan Weinstein and Frank Otto Gatell, eds., American Negro Slavery: A Modern Reader (New York, 1968), pp. 299–309. For the view of Eugene D. Genovese, see his The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society in the Slave South (New York, 1965), pp. 221–39, and for Hammond’s comment, see DeBow’s Review 8 (June 1850): 518. The beginnings of the textile industry in South Carolina and the importance of slave labor are discussed in Ernest M. Lander, Jr., “Manufacturing in Ante-Bellum South Carolina” (Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina, 1956), and in his “Slave Labor in South Carolina Cotton Mills,” Journal of Negro History 38 (April 1953): 160–63. For the comment on integrated cotton mills in Georgia, see James S. Buckingham, The Slave States of America (London, 1842), 2:111–12. For the use of slave labor in Southern textiles during the 1830s and the declining use after that decade, see Norris W. Preyer, “The Historian, the Slave and the Ante-Bellum Textile Industry,” Journal of Negro History 46 (April 1961): 67–82.

For the iron industry in Lexington, see Richard C. Wade, The Urban Frontier: Pioneer Life in Early Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Lexington, Louisville, and St. Louis (Chicago, 1959), p. 126. The story of the Tredegar Iron Works may be found in Kathleen Bruce, Virginia Iron Manufacture in the Slave Era (New York, 1931), pp. 220–38; Ronald L. Lewis, “The Use and Extent of Slave Labor in the Virginia Iron Industry: The Ante-Bellum Era,” West Virginia History 38 (January 1977): 149–51; Philip S. Foner and Ronald L. Lewis, eds., The Black Worker: A Documentary History, Vol. 1 (Philadelphia, 1978), pp. 34–37, and Barbara Green, “Slave Labor at the Maranec Iron Works, 1828–1850,” Missouri Historical Review 79 (1979): 150–64. For the use of slaves in mines, see Starobin, Industrial Slavery, pp. 23–26, and Ronald L. Lewis, “ ‘The Darkest Abode of Man’: Black Miners in the First Southern Coal Field, 1760–1860” (unpublished paper in my possession).

The use of slave labor in the salt industry is fully discussed in John Edmund Stealey III, “Slavery and the Western Virginia Salt Industry,” Journal of Negro History 59 (April 1974): 105–31. For the use of slave labor in the hemp industry, see James F. Hopkins, A History of the Hemp Industry in Kentucky (Lexington, Ky., 1951), pp. 24–30, 132–46. Negro slaves as cowboys is discussed in Philip Durham and Everett Jones, The Negro Cowboys (New York, 1968), pp. 13–19. The story of Simon Gray may be found in John Hebron Moore, “Simon Gray, Riverman: A Slave Who Was Almost Free,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 49 (December 1962): 472–84. For the use of slave labor in the tobacco industry, see Joseph Clarke Robert, The Tobacco Kingdom: Plantation, Market and Factory in Virginia and North Carolina, 1800–1860 (Gloucester, Mass., 1938, reprint ed., 1965), pp. 197–208, and J. Alexander Patten, “Scenes in the Old Dominion. Number Two—A Tobacco Market,” in Eugene L. Schwabb, ed., Travels in the South Selected From Periodicals of the Times (Lexington, Ky., 1973), 2:535–42. The use of slave labor in construction, railroad, and canal works is discussed in “Slave Labor Upon Public Works at the South,” DeBow’s Review 12(July 1854): 76–82; Starobin, Industrial Slavery, pp. 160–67.

Control and Treatment of Industrial Slaves

For the view of Kenneth Stampp on treatment of hired slaves, see The Peculiar Institution, p. 84. For the view that slave hiring was a step toward freedom, see Eaton, op. cit., pp. 668–69, Morris, “Measure of Bondage,” pp. 231–39, and Edman McKenzie, “Self-Hire in the Upper South” (master’s thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 1974), pp. 52–76.

Robert Starobin’s analysis of control and discipline of slaves in Southern industry is in his article, “Disciplining Industrial Slaves in the Old South,” Journal of Negro History 53 (April 1968): 111–28. The control and discipline of slaves in the iron industry are discussed in Charles B. Dew, “Disciplining Slave Ironworkers in the Antebellum South: Coercion, Conciliation and Accommodation,” American Historical Review 79 (April 1974): 393–418, and Samuel Sydney Bradford, “The Negro Ironworkers in Ante-Bellum Virginia,” Journal of Southern History 25 (1959): 194–206. See also Randall M. Miller, “The Fabric of Control: Slavery in Antebellum Southern Textile Mills,” Business History Review 55 (Winter 1981): 471–90, and Barbara L. Green, “Slave Labor at the Marzmee Iron Works, 1828–1850,” Missouri Historical Review 73 (1979): 150–64. For the experience of Moses Grandy, see Moses Grandy, Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy, Late a Slave in the United States of America (Boston, 1964). The most famous account of an attack on a slave mechanic by white workers is in Frederick Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (London, 1892), pp. 178–93. William Wells Brown’s account is in Narrative of William W. Brown: A Fugitive Slave (Boston, 1848).

On the dangers of work in industrial slavery, see Starobin, Industrial Slavery, pp. 37–48. For the factors retarding industrialization in the antebellum South, see Eugene D. Genovese and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, “The Slave Economies in Political Perspective,” Journal of American History 66 (June 1979): 11–17; Jay Mandle, The Plantation Economy(Philadelphia, 1973), pp. 120–25; Starobin, “Economics of Industrial Slavery,” pp. 172–74.

A number of the themes discussed in this chapter are developed in James E. Newton and Ronald L. Lewis, eds., The Other Slaves: Mechanics, Artisans and Craftsmen (Boston, 1978).

4. PLANTATION SLAVERY

The Pyramid of Authority

A good discussion of the structure of the plantation may be found in John W. Blassingame, “Status and Social Structure in the Slave Community: Evidence from New Sources,” in Harry Powers, ed., Perspectives and Irony in American Slavery (Jackson, Miss., 1976), pp. 137–51. For black drivers, see Shirley M. Jackson, “Black Slave Drivers in the Southern United States” (Ph.D. diss., Bowling Green State University, 1977); William L. Van Deburg, The Slave Drivers: Black Agricultural Labor Supervisors in the Antebellum South (Westport, Conn., 1979); William L. Van Deburg, “Who Were the Slave Drivers?” Negro History Bulletin 41 (March–April 1978): 808–11; Frederick Law Olmsted, A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States with Remarks on their Economy (New York, 1859), p. 439.

The Work Systems

For the gang and task systems, see Francis P. Gaines, The Southern Plantation: A Study in the Development of a Tradition (New York, 1924), pp. 124–56. Work on a sugar plantation is described in J. Carlyle Sitterson, Sugar Country (Lexington, Ky., 1953), and V. Alton Moody, “Slavery on Louisiana Sugar Plantations,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 7 (April 1924): 200–211. The use of Irish laborers is described in William Howard Russell, My Diary North and South (Boston, 1863), pp. 372–73. For the work program on tobacco and rice plantations, see Lewis Cecil Gray, History of Agriculture in the Southern States to 1860 (Washington, D.C., 1933), 2:723–35, and for cotton see ibid., pp. 703–4, 720–26; James Lawrence Watkins, King Cotton: A Statistical Review (New York, 1908), pp. 13, 72, 100, 139, 147, 194; and Charles Shepard Davis, The Cotton Kingdom in Alabama (Montgomery, Ala., 1939), pp. 68–79.

Women and Children

The discussion of slave women is based on the following sources: Eugene D. Gen-ovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York, 1947), pp. 495, 497; Gerda Lerner, ed., Black Women in White America: A Documentary History (New York, 1972), pp. 7, 65; Benjamin A. Boskin, ed., Lay My Burden Down: A Folk History of Slavery (Chicago, 1945), 189; Dorothy Burnham, “The Life of the Afro-American Woman in Slavery,” International Journal of Women’s Studies 1 (July–August 1978): 363–77; Philip S. Foner, Women and the American Labor Movement: From Colonial Times to the Eve of World War I (New York, 1979), pp. 98–103; Age, April 10, 1889. The quotation from Jacqueline Jones’ article is from “‘My Mother Was Much of a Woman’: Black Women, Work and the Family Under Slavery,” Feminist Studies 8 (Summer 1980): 243.

For the use of children on the plantations to do odd jobs, see Norman R. Yetman, ed., Life under the “Peculiar Institution”: Selections from the Slave Narrative Collection (New York, 1970), pp. 58, 182, 232. Olmsted’s division of field hands appears in Frederick Law Olmsted, A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States, with Remarks on Their Economy (New York, 1856), p. 433. For Mary Chesnut’s comment, see Mary Boykin Chesnut, A Diary from Dixie; as Written by Mary Boykin Chesnut, edited by Isabella Martin and Myrtle Lockett Avery (New York, 1905), p. 187. See also Catherine Clinton, The Plantation Mistress: Another Side of Southern Slavery (Princeton, N.J., 1980), pp. 120–30. For Pennington’s comment on overseers, see James W. C. Pennington, The Fugitive Blacksmith; or, Events in the Life of James W. C. Pennington, Pastor of a Presbyterian Church, New York, Formerly a Slave in the State of Maryland, United States (New York, 1850; reprint ed., Westport, Conn., 1971), pp. 2–3. Henson’s experience is in Josiah Henson, The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada (Boston, 1849), p. 1, and Brown’s is in William Wells Brown, Narrative of William Wells Brown, A Fugitive Slave, Written by Himself (Boston, 1847), p. 16. For Webber’s comment, see Thomas L. Webber, Deep Like the Rivers: Education in the Slave Quarter Community, 1831–1865 (New York, 1978), p. 21.

Slave Productivity

For Henry Bibb, see Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, an American Slave, Written by Himself (New York, 1849). The best discussion of the overseer is William Kaufman Scarborough, The Overseer: Plantation Management in the Old South (Baton Rouge, La., 1966).

Food and Clothing

Information on the usual diet of slaves may be found in George P. Rawick, ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography (Westport, Conn., 1972), Vols. 6, 7, 12, 13; Genovese, op. cit.; John W. Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Ante-Bellum South (New York, 1972); Leslie Howard Owens, This Species of Property: Slave Life and Culture in the Old South (New York, 1976), and Kenneth M. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (New York, 1956). For the comment on slave stealing, see Reverend Peter Randolph, From Plantation Cabin to Pulpit: The Autobiography of Peter Randolph (Boston, 1893), pp. 27–28. The account of the sour milk is by Mrs. Sutton in Unwritten History of Slavery. Autobiographical Account of Negro Ex-Slaves, Social Science Institute. Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn., 1945, Social Science Documents No. 1. The one about cornmeal is in Benjamin Drew, The Refugee: A North-Side View of Slavery (reprint ed., 1969), pp. 194–95. Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman’s picture of the slave diet is in Time on the Cross (Boston, 1974), 1:129–30. For the view that the slaves’ caloric intake was insufficient, see Owens, op. cit. For the feeding of infants, see Genovese, op. cit., pp. 498–99. Charles Ball, Fifty Years in Chains (New York, 1837; reprint ed., New York, 1970), p. 151; Thomas L. Webber, Deep Like the Rivers: Education in the Slave Quarter Community, 1831–1865 (New York, 1978), pp. 10–12. Frederick Douglass’ recollection is in Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (Boston, 1845); Louisa Adams’ is in Rawick, op. cit., 14:310, and that of Lizzie Williams is in Southern Exposure 1 (Winter 1974): 86. For the clothing of slaves, see Gray, op. cit., 1:565; Federal Writer’s Project, “Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves,” typewritten records, microfilm records, Reel 51.

Housing and Health

For slave housing, see Blassingame, Slave Community, p. 159; John Brown, Slave Life in Georgia (London, 1855), p. 191; Austen Steward, Twenty-Two Years a Slave (Rochester, N.Y., 1859), p. 19; James C. Smith, Autobiography of James C. Smith (Norwich, Conn., 1881), pp. 1–9; Pennington, op. cit., p. 66; Charles Ball, Slavery in the United States. A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball, A Black Man (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1853), pp. 36–37; Henson, op. cit,, p. 120; Robert Anderson, From Slavery to Affluence: Memoirs of Robert Anderson, Ex-Slave (Steamboat Springs, Colo., 1927), p. 56; Benjamin Drew, ed., A North-Side View of Slavery, The Refuge: or the Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada (Boston, 1856), p. 105; Webber, op. cit., pp. 13–14.

The discussion of health care is based on the following: Phillips, op. cit., p. 264; Genovese, op. cit., pp. 498–99; Webber, op. cit., pp. 10–11; Leslie Howard Owen, This Species of Property: Slave Life and Culture in the Old South (New York, 1976), pp. 64–69; Felice Swados, “Negro Health on the Ante-Bellum Plantations,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 10 (1941): 450–72; William Postell, The Health of Slaves on Southern Plantations (Baton Rouge, La., 1951). Glowing reports on medical attention may be found in Lewright Sikes, “Medical Care for Slaves: A Preview of the Welfare State,”Georgia Historical Quarterly 22 (December 1968): 405–13. For a picture in one state, see Todd L. Savitt, Medicine and Slavery: The Disease and Health Care of Blacks in Antebellum Virginia (Urbana, Ill., 1978). For expenditures on health care for slaves, see Arthur Everett Tiedemann, “Slavery in Rural Louisiana 1840–1860” (master’s thesis, Columbia University, 1949). On the annual expenditures for the upkeep of slaves, see Olmsted, Seaboard Slave States, p. 431; Stampp, op. cit., pp. 232–33; “On the General Mangement of a Plantation,” Southern Agriculturist 4 (July 1831): 352; John S. Wilson, “The Negro-His Diet, Clothing, Etc.,” American Cotton Planter and Soil of the South, n.s., 3 (July 1859): 197.

The Lash

For Mary Boykin Chesnut’s comment, see Sudie Duncan Sides, “Southern Women and Slavery, Part I,” History Today 20 (January 1970): 57; for the grand juries, see Richard D. Younger, “Southern Grand Juries and Slavery,” Journal of Negro History 25 (Fall 1952): 167–74. The terrible story of the murder of George is presented in Boynton Merrill, Jr., Jefferson’s Nephews: A Frontier Tragedy (Princeton, N.J., 1976). For the incident reported by Olmsted, see Seaboard Slave States, pp. 275–76. The information on reports of whippings in the diary of Bennett H. Barrow is in Tiedemann, op. cit., pp. 125–26. The reports based on advertisements for fugitive slaves are in Vicksburg Register, December 5, 1838; New Orleans Commercial Bulletin, July 21, 1837; Little Rock (Ark.) State Democrat, December 24, 1847. The reports on the black recruits during the Civil War are in Bell Irwin Wiley, “Billy Yank and the Black Folk,” Journal of Negro History 56 (1951): 234. The report of the British consul in Charleston is in Laura W. White, “The South in the 1850’s as Seen by British Consuls,” Journal of Southern History 1 (1935): 33 (emphasis in original). Olmsted’s report appears in Frederick Law Olmsted, A Journey in the Back Country in the Winter of 1853–4 (New York, 1860), p. 82. For advertisements for whips, see Genovese, op. cit., 649. Frances Foster’s report of being beaten by her mistress appears in “Do Lord Remember Me” by James de Jongh, a dramatic presentation based on the firsthand memories of former slaves, recorded in the late 1930s under the Federal Writers Project.

For Escott’s conclusions on the basis of his statistical survey of slave narratives, see Paul D. Escott, Slavery Remembered: A Record of Twentieth-Century Slave Narratives (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1979). David Brion Davis’ estimate of the consensus of the twenty years’ historiographical debate is in his review in the New York Review of Books, June 26, 1980, p. 14.

5. THE TECHNIQUES OF CONTROL

For Stampp’s comment, see Kenneth M. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution (New York, 1956), p. 143. For the origins and significance of the curse of Ham, see Philip S. Foner, History of Black Americans: From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom (Westport, Conn., 1975), pp. 90, 107, 135, 245, 268, and William McKee Evans, “From the Land of Canaan to the Land of Guinea: The Strange Odyssey of the Sons of Ham,” American Historical Review 85 (February 1980): 15–43.

Respect for Whites

John Brown’s comment appears in John Brown, Life in Georgia: A Narrative of the Life, Sufferings and Escape of John Brown (London, 1955), and Frederick Douglass’ is in Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (Boston, 1845), p. 79.

Role of Religion

The discussion of religion is based on the following sources: J. H. Thornwell, Sermon Preached at the Dedication of a Church Erected in Charleston, South Carolina for the Benefit and Instruction of the Population (Charleston, S.C., 1850), p. 9; South Carolinian, Practicable Considerations Founded in the Scriptures Relative to the Slave Population of South Carolina (Charleston, S.C., 1823), p. 33; “The Colored Man’s Catechism,” Douglass’ Monthly (October 1860); The Negro in Virginia, comp. Works of the Writers’ Project of the Works Projects Administration in the State of Virginia (New York, 1940), p. 108; Philip Slaughter, Memoir of the Life of the Rt. Rev. William Meade, F.F. (Cambridge Mass., 1885), pp. 112–28; Samuel Brooke, Slavery and the Slaveholder’s Religion as Opposed to Christianity (Cincinnati, 1848), p. 30. The comment of the South Carolina planter appears in Janet Daitman Cornelius, “God’s Schoolmasters: Southern Evangelists to the Slaves, 1830–1860” (Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1977), pp. 201–10. For the manipulation of slaves’ superstitions, see Gladys-Marie Fry, Night Riders in Black Folk History (Nashville, Tenn., 1975), p. 56. For the letters of the slaves, see Robert S. Starobin, ed., Blacks in Bondage: Letters of American Slaves (New York, 1974), pp. 57–58, 67. For a general discussion, see L. B. Washington, “The Use of Religion for Social Control in American Slavery” (master’s thesis, Howard University, 1939). The material on education is derived from Carter G. Woodson, The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 (New York, 1915).

Rewards and Incentives

Solomon Northup’s comment is in Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave, with a new introduction by Philip S. Foner (New York, 1970). For the comment of the Georgia slaveholder, see Stampp, op. cit., p. 163. For the use of incentives, see Eugene Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll (New York, 1956), p. 539; Guion S. Johnson, Ante-Bellum North Carolina (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1937), p. 530; Arthur Everett Tiedemann, “Slavery in Rural Louisiana, 1840–1860” (master’s thesis, Columbia University, 1949), pp. 130–32, and Roderick A. McDonald, “To Have and To Hold: The Economic Activities of Black Slaves on Louisiana Sugar Plantations” (Paper presented at meeting of Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History, New Orleans, October 1980).

Divide and Rule: Privileged Bondsmen

For the role of the driver and house servant as part of the apparatus of control, see Shirley H. Jackson, “Black Slave Drivers in the Southern United States” (Ph.D. diss., Bowling Green State University, 1977); William L. Van Deburg, The Slave Drivers (Westport, Conn., 1979); Howell Henry, Police Control of the Slave in South Carolina (Emery, Va., 1914); DeBow’s Review 22 (1857): 376–79; James H. Hammond Papers, Hammond Plantation Manual, Microfilm in Library of Congress, Manuscripts Division; Robert S. Starobin, “Privileged Bondsmen and the Process of Accommodation: The Role of Houseservants and Drivers as Seen in Their Own Letters,” Journal of Social History 50; E. Ophelia Settle, “Social Attitudes During the Slave Regime: Household Servants versus Field Hands,” Publication of the American Sociological Society 28 (May 1934): 95–99; C. W. Harper, “House Servants and Field Hands: Fragmentation in the Antebellum Slave Community,” North Carolina Historical Review 53 (Spring 1978): 42–59; Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb (New York, 1894), p. 136; Frederick Law Olmsted, The Cotton Kingdom (New York, 1860), 2:202, and William L. Van Deburg, “Slave Drivers and Slave Narratives: A New Look at the ‘Dehumanized Elite,’ ” Historian 39 (August 1977): 717–31.

Slave Patrols

For the slave patrols, see E. Russ Williams, Jr., ed., “Slave Patrol Ordinances of St. Tammany Parish Louisiana, 1835–1838,” Louisiana History (Fall 1972): 399–411; Ray Grande, “Slave Unrest in Florida,” Florida Historical Quarterly 55 (July 1976): 21–22. Olmsted’s comment is in Journey in the Back Country in the Winter of 1853–4 (New York, 1860), p. 444, and the remark of Governor Haynes is quoted in Harvey Wish, “American Slave Insurrections before 1861,” Journal of Negro History 22 (1937): 306. The efforts to win over full support among poor whites is discussed in Bertram W. Doyle, The Etiquette of Race Relations in the South (Chicago, 1937); W. B. Benn, “Anti-Jeffersonianism in the Ante-Bellum South,” North Carolina Historical Review 12 (1937): 103–24; James B. Ranck, Albert Gallatin Brown (New York, 1937). For DeBow, see J. D. B. DeBow, The Interest in Slavery of the Southern Non-Slaveholder (Charleston, S.C., 1860). For Douglass’ comment, see The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Hartford, Conn., 1883), p. 284.

Slave Codes and the Courts

For Douglass’ description of slavery, see Philip S. Foner, Selections from the Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York, 1945), p. 45. The discussion of the slave codes and the legal status of slaves is based on the following: Helen T. Catterall, ed., Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro (Washington, D.C., 1926–1937), esp. 1:150, 223–24; 2:168; 3:571–73; John Codman Hurd, The Law of Freedom and Bondage in the United States (Boston, 1858–1863); Barnett Hollander, Slavery in America: Its Legal History (New York, 1963); Wilbert E. Moore, “Slave Law and the Social Structure,” Journal of Negro History 25 (April 1941): 191; Florence R. Beatty-Brown, “Legal Status of Arkansas Negroes before Emancipation,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 23 (Spring 1969): 6–13; Mundeville v. Cookenderbert (CC D.C. 1827), 16 Fed. Cas. 582; Clement Eaton, A History of the Old South (New York, 1966), pp. 254–55; Joseph Brevard, The Statute Law of South Carolina (Charleston, S.C., 1814), 2:105, 253–55; Joseph C. Robert, The Tobacco Kingdom (Durham, N.C., 1938), p. 56; George M. Stroud, A Sketch of the Laws Relating to Slavery (Philadelphia, 1856); Stampp, op. cit., pp. 224, 226; Ulrich B. Phillips, American Negro Slavery (New York, 1918), p. 502; Maurice S. Hindus, “Black Justice under White Law: Criminal Prosecutions of Blacks in Antebellum South Carolina,” Journal of Southern History 63 (December 1976): 594–95. For the case of Celia, see Hugh P. Williamson, “The State against Celia: A Slave,” Midwest Journal 8 (Spring–Fall 1956): 408–20. A. E. Keir Nash has written four articles on this issue: “A More Equitable Past? Southern Supreme Courts and the Protection of the Antebellum Negro,” North Carolina Law Review 48 (1969–1970): 197–242; “Fairness and Formalism in the Trials of Blacks in the State Supreme Courts of the Old South,” Virginia Law Review 56 (1970): 64–100; “Negro Rights, Unionism, and Greatness on the South Carolina Court of Appeals: The Extraordinary Chief Justice John Belton O’Neall,” South Carolina Law Review 21 (1968): 141–90; “The Texas Supreme Court and the Trial Rights of Blacks, 1845–1860,” Journal of American History 58 (December 1971): 622–42. See also Daniel J. Flanigan, “Criminal Procedure in Slave Trials in the Antebellum South,” Journal of Southern History 40 (August 1974): 537–64. Higginbotham’s criticism of these contentions appears in A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., “Racism and the Early American Legal Process, 1619–1896,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 407 (May 1973): 9–10. For Cobb’s comment, see Thomas Read Roots Cobb, An Inquiry into the Law of Negro Slavery in the United States of America: To Which Is Prefixed an Historical Sketch of Slavery (Philadelphia, 1858). For the case of Peter v. Hargrave, see 46 Va. (5 Grattan) 12 (1848), and Wayne Edward Barry, “Slaves Against Their Master’s Will: A Judicial History of Virginia’s Manumission Law, 1800–1860,” (unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Minnesota, 1979), pp. 56–60.

6. THE SLAVE COMMUNITY

The Quarters

The basic work on the slave community is John Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South (New York, 1972, rev. ed., 1979). For a range of critical responses, see Al-Tony Gilmore, ed., Revisiting Blassingame’s “The Slave Community” : The Scholars Respond (Westport, Conn., 1978). For a study of origins of earlier slave communities, see Allan Kulikoff, “The Origins of Afro-American Society in Tidewater Maryland and Virginia 1700 to 1790,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser. 35 (April 1978): 226–59. For interesting and valuable insights into the operation of the slave community, see Thomas L. Webber, Deep Like the Rivers: Education in the Slave Quarter Community, 1831–1865 (New York, 1978).

For Harriet M. Farlin’s recollection, see B. A. Botkin, ed., Lay My Burden Down: A Folk History of Slavery (Chicago, 1945), pp. xi–xii. Henry Bibb’s view on stealing is in Henry Bibb, Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, An American Slave(New York, 1849), p. 166; Charles Ball’s view is in Charles Ball, Fifty Years in Chains, with a new introduction by Philip S. Foner (New York, 1970), pp. 298–99. John Brown’s comment is in John Brown, Slave Life in Georgia: A Narrative of the Life, Sufferings and Escape of John Brown (London, 1855), pp. 82–83. See also George P. Rawick, From Sunup to Sundown: The Making of the Black Community (Westport, Conn., 1972), p. 69. For the education of slaves, see Carter G. Woodson, The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 (New York, 1918), pp. 208–15.

Drivers and Field Hands

The discussion of the slave drivers is based on Shirley M. Jackson, “Black Slave Drivers in the Southern United States” (Ph.D. diss., Bowling Green State University, 1977); William L. Van Deburg, The Slave Drivers: Black Agricultural Labor Supervisors in the Antebellum South (Westport, Conn., 1979); William L. Van Deburg, “The Slave Drivers of Arkansas: A View from the Narratives,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 35 (Spring 1976): 238–45; Robert S. Starobin, Blacks in Bondage: Letters of American Slaves (New York, 1974); Robert S. Starobin, “Privileged Bondsmen and the Process of Accommodation: The Role of House Servants and Drivers as Seen in Their Own Letters,” Journal of Social History 5 (Fall 1971): 41–70; George Rawick, The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography (Westport, Conn., 1971–1972), South Carolina Narratives, Pt. I:197–98; Pt. II:166; Georgia Narratives, Pt. IV:356–57; Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave, with a new introduction by Philip S. Foner (New York, 1970), pp. 367–68; James Williams, An American Slave Who Was for Several Years a Driver on a Cotton Plantation in Alabama (New York, 1838), pp. 64–68; Josiah Henson, The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave (Boston, 1849), p. 21; Peter Randolph, From Slave Cabin to the Pulpit, The Autobiography of Rev. Peter Randolph (Boston, 1893), p. 213; Works Project Adminstration, The Negro in Virginia (New York, 1969), p. 156.

House Servants and Field Hands

The discussion of the house servants is based on the following sources: Kenneth M. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution (New York, 1956), pp. 41–42, 337–39; Joel Gray Taylor, Negro Slavery in Louisiana (Baton Rouge, La., 1963), p. 85; James Benson Sellers, Slavery in Alabama (University, Ala., 1950), p. 74; Ulrich Bonnell Phillips, Life and Labor in the Old South (Boston, 1929), pp. 206–7; Eugene D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll (New York, 1947), pp. 327–65; C. W. Harper, “House Servants and Field Hands: Fragmentation in the Antebellum Slave Community,” North Carolina Historical Review 55 (January 1978): 42–59; Starobin, Blacks in Bondage, p. 11; The Negro in Virginia, pp. 41, 43, 148; Rawick, ed., Mississippi Narratives, Pt. II:7: 26–130.

The best study of education in the slave community is Webber, op. cit. For Lane’s account, see Narrative of the Life of Lunsford Lane in William Loren Katz, ed., Five Slave Narratives (New York, 1969). See also Unwritten History of Slavery: Autobiographical Account of Negro Ex-Slaves (Nashville, Tenn., 1945), and God Struck Me Dead: Religious Conversion Experiences and Autobiographies of Negro Ex-Slaves (Nashville, Tenn., 1945), p. 198. For a moving picture of women field hands under slavery, see Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race and Class (New York, 1981).

Religion in the Quarters

The discussion of religion in the slave quarter is based on the following sources: Genovese, op. cit., pp. 159–284 and passim; Vincent Harding, “Religion and Resistance Among Antebellum Negroes, 1800–1860,” in August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, eds., The Making of Black America (New York, 1969), 1:179–97; Kenneth Baily, “Protestantism and Afro-Americans in the Old South: Another Look,” Journal of Negro History 56 (November 1971): 451–72; Luther P. Jackson, “Religious Development of the Negro in Virginia from 1760–1869,” Journal of Negro History 16 (April 1931): 203–4, 209–12; W. Harrison Daniel, “Virginia Baptists and the Negro in the Antebellum Era,” Journal of Negro History 56 (January 1971): 71–76; Randall M. Miller, “Black Catholics in the Slave South: Some Needs and Opportunities for Study,” Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia 86 (March–December 1975): 100–101; Rawick, ed., Texas Narratives, 4:132. An excellent study also used in this discussion is Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: The “Invisible Institution” in the Antebellum South (New York, 1978), esp. pp. 212–51. For slave burials, see David R. Roediger, “And Die in Dixie: Funerals, Death, & Heaven in the Slave Community, 1700–1865,” Massachusetts Review 12 (Spring 1980): 163–83.

The Spirituals

For Negro spirituals and slave songs, see Thomas W. Higginson, “Negro Spirituals,” Atlantic Monthly 29 (June 1867): 670–85; Thomas W. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment (Boston, 1870), p. 260; William Francis Allen, comp., Slave Songs of the United States (New York, 1867), p. 45; Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1977); Lawrence W. Levine, “Slave Songs and Slave Consciousness: An Exploration in Neglected Sources,” in Tamara K. Hareven, ed., Anonymous Americans: Explorations in Nineteenth Century Social History (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971), pp. 99–130; Miles Mark Fisher, Slave Songs in the United States (New York, 1963): Lydia Parrish, Slave Songs of the Georgia Sea Islands (Hatboro, Pa., 1965); Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Hartford, Conn., 1882), p. 181. For Douglass’ observation on the real meaning of slave songs, see Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (Boston, 1845), p. 27. John Little’s statement is quoted in Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States (New York, 1980), p. 168.

The Slave Family

For the traditional view of the Negro slave family, see E. Franklin Frazier, “The Negro Slave Family,” Journal of Negro History 15 (Spring 1930): 198–259; E. Franklin Frazier, The Negro Family in the United States (New York, 1932); Stampp, op. cit., pp. 130–32; Stanley M. Elkins, Slavery: A Problem in American Intellectual and Institutional Life (Chicago, 1959), pp. 53–54; Richard C. Wade, Slavery in the Cities: The South, 1820–1860 (New York, 1964), pp. 117–21; Daniel P. Moynihan, The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (Washington, D.C., 1965). See also William P. Rainwater and W. L. Yancey, The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy (Cambridge, Mass., 1967). The discussion of the new interpretations of the slave family is based on the following sources: Eugene D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, pp. 442–523; Eugene D. Genovese, “American Slaves and Their History,” New York Review of Books, December 3, 1970, pp. 34–43; Blassingame, op. cit., pp. 41, 59, 76, 78–79; Rawick, From Sunup to Sundown, pp. 112–28; and, of course, Herbert G. Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750–1925 (New York, 1976), and Herbert G. Gutman, “Slave Family and Its Legacies,” Historical Reflections 6 (Summer 1979): 183–211. For an incisive criticism of Gutman’s Black Family, see review by Dan T. Carter in Reviews inAmerican History (June 1977): 166–73. The advertisements in the Lynchburg Virginian are in the issues of August 8, 1836, and October 31, 1850. For the frequency of marriage among first cousins among Southern upper-class whites, see Bertran Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South (New York, 1982).

For an interesting discussion of slave folk tales, see Richard Chase, comp., Joel Chandler Harris, The Complete Tales of Uncle Remus (Boston, 1955), pp. 6–8, 12–14; David A. Walton, “Joel Chandler Harris as Folklorist: A Reassessment,” Keystone Folklore Quarterly 11 (Spring 1966): 23–42.

7. SLAVE RESISTANCE IN THE ANTEBELLUM SOUTH

The full text of Paul Laurence Dunbar’s poem, “We Wear the Mask,” is in Paul Laurence Dunbar, Lyrics of a Lordly Life, with an introduction by W. D. Howells (New York, 1926), p. 167.

Day-to-Day Resistance

For a discussion of such slave tactics as malingering, destruction of tools and implements, inefficient working habits, and the like, see Raymond A. Bauer and Alice H. Bauer, “Day to Day Resistance to Slavery,” Journal of Negro History 21 (October 1942): 388–49; Marion J. Russell, “American Slave Discontent in Records of High Courts,” Journal of Negro History 31 (October 1946): 411–34; and Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts (New York, 1943), pp. 140–49. For criticism of the view that these tactics constituted, in the main, conscious resistance to slavery, see George M. Fredrickson and Christopher C. Lash, “Resistance to Slavery,” Civil War History 13 (December 1967): 317–19.

Annie Coley’s reminiscences are in WPA Collection, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Box 2262. For the complaint of the whites of Onslaw County, see Donnie D. Bellamy, “Slavery in Microcosm: Onslaw County, North Carolina,” Journal of Negro History 62 (October 1977): 346. The letter describing the incident involving Summer is in the Weeks Hall Memorial Collection, William Jacobs to Mrs. Mary C. Weeks, November 29, 1837, Department of Archives and Manuscripts, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Discussion of Frederick Douglass’ battle with Edward Covey will be found in Philip S. Foner, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1964), pp. 19–20, and the full account is in Narrative of Frederick Douglass, 70–73. Solomon Northup’s battle with his master is in Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave, with a new introduction by Philip S. Foner (New York, 1970), pp. 89–90. The testimony of Albert Forester in the murder of Samuel is in Concordia Parish Inquest Case file, Louisiana State University, Department of Archives and Manuscripts, Baton Rouge, July 5, 1857. W.E.B. Du Bois’ comment is in W.E.B. Du Bois, John Brown, with an introduction by Herbert Aptheker (Millwood, N.Y., 1973), p. 81. The account of the poisoning in Virginia appears in the Lynchburg Virginian, November 24, 1834. For Mays’ comment, see Robert E. May, “John A. Quitman and His Slaves: Reconciling Slave Resistance with the Proslavery Defense,” Journal of Southern History 46 (November 1980): 554, 560, 561.

Fugitive Slaves

Daniel Goodard’s comment appears in WPA Files, “Slave Narratives,” South Carolina, Library of Congress. The view of the significance of escape as a form of resistance to slavery is that of James M. McPherson, Lawrence B. Holland, James M. Banner, Nancy J. Weiss, and Michael D. Bell, Blacks in America: Bibliographical Essays (Garden City, N.Y., 1971), p. 94. The Charleston paper of 1827 is the Charleston (S.C.) Observer, July 21, 1827, reprinted in John R. Commons et al., eds., A Documentary History of American Industrial Society (Cleveland, 1910), 2:90–91. The maroons are treated in two articles by Herbert Aptheker—“Maroons within the Present Limits of the United States,” Journal of Negro History 24 (April 1939): 167–84; “Slave Guerilla Warfare,” in To Be Free: Studies in American Negro History (New York, 1948), pp. 11–30; and in Michael P. Johnson, “Runaway Slaves and the Slave Communities in South Carolina, 1799–1830,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser. 38 (July 1981): 418–41. For fugitive slaves in Canada, see Robin Wink, The Negro in Canada (New Haven, Conn., 1972), pp. 144–56. For the full text of “I’m on My Way to Canada” (written to the tune of “Oh, Susannah”) see Philip S. Foner, American Labor Songs of the Nineteenth Century (Urbana, Ill., 1975), p. 90. The account of the fugitive escape to Mexico is in Frederick Law Olmsted, A Journey Through Texas: or, a Saddle-Trip in the Southwestern Frontier (New York, 1857), pp. 256–57. William Still, The Underground Railroad (Philadelphia, 1872), and Larry Gara, The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad (Lexington, Ky., 1961) are the two books discussed on the issue of the role of the Underground Railroad.

For the reports of fugitive slaves in the federal census, see J.D.B. DeBow, The Seventh Census of the United States, 1850 (Washington, D.C., 1853), pp. 220, 222, and Preliminary Report of the Eighth Census (Washington, D.C., 1862), pp. 137, 263, and in Michael P. Johnson, “Runaway Slaves and the Slave Communities in South Carolina, 1799–1830,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 38 (July 1981): 418–41. Harriet Tubman’s planning for her escape is discussed in Earl Conrad, Harriet Tubman (Washington, D.C., 1943), pp. 37–38. For the assistance given to fugitive slaves by black seamen, see Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), p. 147. For the accounts of fugitives who escaped from the lower South, see Gilbert Barnes and Dwight L. Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld, and Sarah Grimké, 1822–1844 (New York, 1934), 2:512–13, and Larry Gara, “Some Self-Help Plans of Fugitive Slaves,” Negro History Bulletin (January 1952): 75–76. The handbill listing a reward for “Esther” is in the Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, and is reprinted in Elwood L. Bridner, Jr., “The Fugitive Slaves of Maryland,” Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (Spring 1971): 33. For the sex and ages of Maryland’s three hundred fugitives, see ibid, pp. 36–38.

Frederick Douglass’ escape from slavery is discussed in Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 22–23. For the escape of Ellen and William Craft, see William Craft, Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom, or, The Escape of William and Ellen Craft from Slavery (London, 1860), and Still, op. cit., pp. 608–10. Henry “Box” Brown’s escape is described in Charles Stearns, Narrative of Henry Box Brown, Who Escaped from Slavery Enclosed in a Box 3 Feet Long and Wide (Boston, 1849), pp. 59–62; Still, op. cit., pp. 81–84. For the full text of the song, “Escape from Slavery of Henry Box Brown,” see Foner, American Labor Songs, pp. 91–92. The group escapes are described in Sidney Gallway, The Underground Railroad in Tompkins County (Ithaca, N.Y., 1963), pp. 6–7; Tendai Mutunhu, “John W. Jones: Underground Railroad Station-Master,” Negro History Bulletin 41 (March–April 1978): 815–16; Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin (Cincinnati, 1880), p. 179; and R. C. Smedley, History of the Underground Railroad in Chester and the Neighboring Counties of Pennsylvania (Lancaster, Pa., 1883), p. 228. The accounts of family escapes are in Bridner, op. cit., pp. 40–41, and Still, op. cit., p. 143. On the difficulties of successful escape from slavery, see W. W. Siebert, The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1899), pp. 28–29, 152. Harriet Tubman’s jubilant comment appears in Conrad, op. cit., p. 38.

Slave Conspiracies and Revolts

For the banning of slaves from practicing medicine in Tennessee, see Helen T. Caterall, Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro (New York, 1926–1937), pp. 520–21. The pioneering articles on slave revolts are Harvey Wish, “American Slave Insurrections before 1861,” Journal of Negro History 22 (July 1937): 299–320, and Herbert Aptheker, “American Negro Slave Revolts,” Science and Society 1 (1936–1937): 512–38, and “More on American Negro Slave Revolts,” Science and Society 2 (January 1938): 386–91. Carroll’s study is Joseph C. Carroll, Slave Insurrections in the United States, 1800–1865 (Boston, 1938). Aptheker’s full-length study, American Negro Slave Revolts (New York, 1943), originally was his doctoral dissertation at Columbia University. His criterion for determining a slave revolt is on pages 162–63. The criticism of Aptheker is in Chase C. Mooney, “The Literature of Slavery: A Re-evaluation,” Indiana Magazine of History 47 (September 1951): 255, and Kenneth M. Stampp, “Rebels and Samboes: The Search for the Negro’s Personality in History,” Journal of Southern History 37 (August, 1971): 370. For Gabriel Prosser’s conspiracy, see Philip S. Foner, History of Black Americans: From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom (Westport, Conn., 1975), pp. 453–56.

Denmark Vesey’s Conspiracy

The discussion of Denmark Vesey’s conspiracy is based on the following sources: Lionel H. Kennedy and Thomas Parker, An Official Report of the Trials of Sundry Negroes Charged with an Attempt to Raise an Insurrection in the State of South Carolina (Charleston, S.C., 1822); William W. Freehling, Prelude to Civil War; the Nullification Controversy in South Carolina, 1816–1836 (New York, 1966); John Oliver Killens, ed., The Trial Record of Denmark Vesey (Boston, 1970); Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts (New York, 1943), pp. 15, 65, 81, 98, 106, 115, 219, 268–75; John Lofton, Insurrection in South Carolina: The Turbulent World of Denmark Vesey (Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1964); Joesph G. Carroll, Slave Insurrections in the United States (New York, 1938), pp. 83–117; Robert S. Starobin, ed., Denmark Vesey: The Slave Conspiracy of 1822 (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1970); and Max L. Kleinman, “The Denmark Vesey Conspiracy: An Historiographical Study,” Negro History Bulletin 37 (February–March 1974): 225–29. Higginson’s comment appears in Thomas W. Higginson, “Denmark Vesey,” Atlantic Monthly 7 (June 1861): 730, and Aptheker’s is in American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 268. Richard C. Wade’s revisionist article on the Vesey conspiracy appears in “The Vesey Plot: A Reconsideration,” Journal of Southern History 30 (May 1964): 143–61.

Interlude

For the discussion in this section, see the following: Herbert Aptheker, “Negro Slave Revolts in the United States, 1526–1860,” in Essays in the History of the American Negro (New York, 1948), pp. 40–44, 47; Herbert Aptheker, “Slave Guerrilla Warfare,” in To Be Free: Studies in American Negro Slavery (New York, 1952), pp. 24–25; James Taylor, “Slave Conspiracies in North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review 5 (January 1928): 24; African Repository 6 (February 1831): 383–84.

Nat Turner’s Rebellion

In reconstructing the Nat Turner insurrection, I have relied on the following sources: Thomas R. Gray, ed., The Confessions of Nat Turner, the leader of the late insurrection in Southampton (County) Va. (Baltimore, 1831); “The Nat Turner Insurrection,” Anglo-African Magazine 1 (1959): 387–97; Thomas Wentworth Higginson, “Nat Turner’s Insurrection,” Atlantic Monthly 8 (August 1861): 173–87, reprinted in Higginson, Travellers and Outlaws (Boston, 1889); William S. Drewry, The Southampton Insurrection (Washington, D.C., 1900); Herbert Aptheker, Nat Turner’s Slave Rebellion (New York, 1967); Henry I. Tragie, “Southampton Slave Revolt,” American History Illustrated 6 (November 1971): 4–11, 44–46; Stephen B. Oates, “Children of Darkness,” American Heritage 24 (October 1973): 42–47, 89–91; Stephen B. Oates, The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner’s Fierce Rebellion (New York, 1975). Two volumes of collections of documents have been published: Eric Foner, ed., Nat Turner (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971), and the book by Henry Irving Tragie, The Southampton Slave Revolt of 1831: A Compilation of Source Material (Amherst, Mass., 1971). Although the latter is the most comprehensive collection of documents, covering virtually all aspects of the rebellion, it does not include any black perspectives on Turner, which are available in the letters of black abolitionists, speeches of black abolitionists, and in fugitive slave narratives.

Reaction to the Rebellion

For the reaction to Turner’s revolt, see in addition to the works cited above, John Cromwell, “The Aftermath of Nat Turner’s Insurrection,” Journal of Negro History 6 (May 1920): 218–32; Elizabeth Lawson, “After Nat Turner’s Revolt,” Daily Worker, August 21, 1936, p. 7; Robert N. Elliott, “The Nat Turner Insurrection as Reported in the North Carolina Press,” North Carolina Historical Review 38 (January 1961): 1–17; James Newton, “Delaware’s Reaction to the Nat Turner Rebellion,” Negro History Bulletin (December 1974–January 1975): 328–31; Ira Berlin, ed., “After Nat Turner: A Letter from the North,” Journal of Negro History 55 (April 1970): 145–51.

For the slave song on Nat Turner, see Philip S. Foner, American Labor Songs, pp. 93–94. The continuing interest in Nat Turner among black Americans is set forth in Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black Americans: Major Speeches by Negroes in the United States, 1797–1971 (New York, 1972), pp. 3, 88, 203, 264, 538–40, 822, 843, 1031. See also William Wells Brown, The Black Man, His Antecedents, His Genius (reprint ed., New York, 1968), p. 7; George Williams, History of the Negro Race in America (reprint ed., New York, 1968), 2:91; “Nat Turner,” a poem by T. Thomas Fortune, New York Globe, October 18, 1884; Sterling Brown, “Remembering Nat Turner,” Crisis, February, 1939, p. 48; Eric Foner, op. cit., pp. 158–77.

William Styron’s Confessions of Nat Turner

The literature of the controversy over William Styron’s novel The Confessions of Nat Turner is extensive. The following are especially useful: C. Vann Woodward, New Republic, October 7, 1967; Herbert Aptheker, Nation, October 16, 1967, and “Styron-Turner and Nat Turner: Myth and Truth,” Political Affairs 46 (October 1967): 40–50; Henry Irving Tragle, “Styron and His Sources,” Massachusetts Review (Winter 1970): 135–53; William Styron, reply to Aptheker, Nation, April 22, 1968; William Styron in New York Times, August 5, 1967, February 11, 1968; New York Review of Books, November 19, 1970; Gertrude Wilson, “Styron’s Folly,” New York Amsterdam News, December 30, 1967; Charles V. Hamilton in Saturday Review, June 22, 1968; James D. Bilotta, in Negro History Bulletin (December 1974–January 1975); John Henrik Clarke, ed., William Styron’s Nat Turner, Ten Black Writers Respond (Boston, 1968); Eugene D. Genovese’s critical review in New York Review of Books, September 12, 1968, and response by Vincent Harding, one of the ten black writers, November 7, 1968; Martin Duberman’s critical review of Ten Black Writers in New York Times Sunday Book Review, August 11, 1968, and response in ibid., September 1, 1968. Articles in scholarly journals on the controversy include: Seymour L. Gross and Eileen Bender, “History, Politics and Literature: The Myth of Nat Turner,” American Quarterly 23 (October 1971): 487–518; John White, “The Novelist as Historian: William Styron and American Negro Slavery,” Journal of American Studies 4 (February 1971): 233–45, and Arthur D. Casciato and James C. W. West III, “William Styron and the Southampton Insurrection,” American Literature 52 (January 1981): 563–77. A summary of the controversy may be found in J. Duff and P. Mitchell, ed., The Nat Turner Rebellion: The Historical Event and the Modern Controversy (New York, 1975), and Herbert Shapiro, “The Confessions of Nat Turner: William Styron and His Critics,” Negro American Literature Forum 9 (Winter 1975): 99–104. Shapiro himself criticizes Styron’s historical accuracy.

More Conspiracies and Revolts

A listing of most of the rumors and reports of conspiracies from 1835 to the outbreak of the Civil War may be found in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, pp. 325–59. The account of the conspiracy led by Uncle Isaac is in James Redpath, The Roving Editor (Boston, 1858), pp. 269–83. The Maryland event of 1845 is discussed in Jeffrey Brackett, The Negro in Maryland: A Study of the Institution of Slavery (Baltimore, 1889), p. 96 and in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 337. For the Kentucky event of 1848, see ibid., p. 338 and J. Winston Coleman, Jr., Slavery Times in Kentucky (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1940), p. 88. The slave insurrection panic of 1856 is discussed in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, pp. 347–54; Harvey Wish, “The Slave Insurrection Panic of 1856,” Journal of Southern History 5 (May 1939): 207–22; Robert S. Starobin, Industrial Slavery in the Old South (New York, 1970), pp. 89–90; Caleb P. Patterson, The Negro in Tennessee, 1790–1865 (Austin, Tex., 1922), pp. 49–50; Chase C. Mooney, Slavery Times in Tennessee (Bloomington, Ind., 1957), pp. 62–63; Coleman, op. cit., pp. 107–10; Clement Eaton, The Freedom-of-Thought Struggle in the Old South (New York, 1964), pp. 99–102; Charles B. Dew, “Black Ironworkers and the Slave Insurrection Panic of 1856,” Journal of Southern History 41 (August 1975): 321–38. Aptheker, Wish, Starobin, and Patterson are convinced that a real insurrection was planned; Mooney and Coleman are noncommittal; and Eaton and Dew reject the genuineness of the 1856 insurrection.

The slave revolt on the Amistad is discussed in Philip S. Foner, History of Black Americans, 1:126–27. There are three scholarly studies of the slave revolt on the Creole: Wilburn Williams, Jr., “The Creole Revolt: New Directions for the History of Slave Rebellions” (honors thesis, Amherst College, 1971); Howard Jones, “The Peculiar Institution and National Honor: The Case of the Creole Slave Revolt,” Civil War History 20 (March 1975): 28–50; and Edward D. Jervey and C. Harold Huber, “The Creole Affair,” Journal of Negro History 65 (Summer 1980): 196–211. See, in addition, Annie Heloise Abel and Frank J. Klingberg, eds., A Side-Light on Anglo-American Relations, 1839–1858: Furnished by the Correspondence of Lewis Tappan and Others with the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (New York, 1970), Frederick Douglass, who admired Madison Washington, wrote a short story about him and the Creole revolt which was entitled, “The Heroic Slave.” Julia Griffiths, ed., Autographs for Freedom 1 (1853–1854): 174–239, and reprinted in Philip S. Foner, The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, Vol. 5: 1844–1860 (New York, 1975), pp. 473–506. Sections of the short story also appeared in Frederick Douglass’ Paper, March 11, 1853. For a fairly complete documentary collection on the Creole affair, see Senate Documents, 27th Cong., 2d sess., II, no. 51, pp. 1–46.

The escape of slaves from Key West to the Bahamas is discussed in Julia Floyd Smith, Slavery and Plantation Growth in Antebellum Florida, 1821–1860 (Gainesville, Fla., 1973), p. 106. For Raboteau’s point on religion as a form of resistance, see Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: “The Invisible Institution” in the Antebellum South (New York, 1978), p. 318.

For Genovese’s discussion of slave rebellions in the New World, see Eugene D. Genovese, From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave in the Making of the Modern World (Baton Rouge, La., 1979).

The relationship of resistance to slave survival and independence is discussed in Keith Andrew Winsell, “Black Identity: The Southern Negro, 1830–1845” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1971).

For Cartwright’s treatise on the Negro diseases he had discovered, see Samuel Cartwright, “Diseases and Peculiarities in the Negro Race,” DeBow’s Review 11 (September 1851): 331–34.

8. FREE BLACKS IN THE ANTEBELLUM SOUTH

Earlier studies of the free Negro include the following works: John H. Russell, The Free Negro in Virginia, 1619–1865 (Baltimore, 1913); James M. Wright, The Free Negro in Maryland, 1634–1860 (Baltimore, 1921); Charles S. Sydnor, “The Free Negro in Mississippi before the Civil War,” American Historical Review 32 (July 1927): 769–88; Luther P. Jackson, Free Negro Labor and Property Holding in Virginia, 1830–1860 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1943); E. Horace Fitchett, “The Traditions of the Free Negro in Charleston, South Carolina,” Journal of Negro History 25 (April 1940): 139–51, “The Origins and Growth of the Free Negro Population of Charleston, South Carolina,” Journal of Negro History 26 (1941): 421–37, and “The Status of the Free Negro in Charleston, South Carolina and His Descendants in Modern Society,” Journal of Negro History 32 (1947): 430–51.

The best recent study of the free Negro in the South is Ira Berlin, Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (New York, 1974). Recent state studies include Letitia Woods Brown, Free Negroes in the District of Columbia, 1790–1846 (New York, 1972); Herbert E. Sterkx, The Free Negro in Antebellum Louisiana (Rutherford, N.J., 1972), and Marina Wilkramangrake, A World in Shadow—The Free Black in Antebellum South Carolina (Columbia, S.C., 1973).

Several articles dealing with the free Negro in a number of Southern states and cities have been reprinted in John H. Bracey, Jr., August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick, eds., Free Blacks in America, 1800–1860 (Belmont, Calif., 1971). Recent comparative studies of the free Negro include David W. Cohen and Jack Greene, eds., Neither Slave Nor Free: The Freedman of African Descent in the Slave Societies of the New World (Baltimore, 1972), and Laura Foner, “The Free People of Color in Louisiana and St. Domingue, A Comparative Portrait of Two Three-Caste Slave Societies,” Journal of Social History 3 (1970):406–30.

Statistics for the free black population in the upper and lower South in 1820 and 1860 are derived from Population of the UnitedStates in 1860 (Washington, D.C., 1864), pp. 598–604. On the greater number of free black women, see Berlin, op. cit., p. 177.

Restrictions on Freedom Routes and Self-Purchase

For the changes in manumission and freedom suits in the Southern states after the post-Revolutionary decades, see Berlin, op. cit., p. 138, and ibid., p. 153, for the manumission of decrepit slaves. For the manumission of Jenny and her son, see Joel Gray Taylor, Negro Slavery in Louisiana (Baton Rouge, La., 1963), p. 159. For the law in Raleigh, see John Spencer Bassett, Anti-Slavery Leaders of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1898), pp. 60–74.

The only biography of George Moses Horton is Richard Walser, The Black Poet (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1968). There is also an article on Horton: Blyden Jackson, “George Moses Horton, North Carolinian,” North Carolina Historical Review 41 (Spring 1976): 140–47. Horton is discussed in Sumner Eliot Matison, “Manumission by Purchase,”Journal of Negro History 33 (January 1948): 157–58; and his poem is published in Sterling A. Brown, Arthur P. Davis, and Ulysses Lee, eds., The Negro Caravan (New York, 1941), pp. 288–89. Theodore Weld’s account of the situation in Cincinnati is in his letter of March 18, 1834, in Gilbert H. Barnes and Dwight L. Dumond, eds., Weld-Grimké Letters (New York, 1934), 1:134. For the other report on Cincinnati, see Herbert Aptheker, “Buying Freedom,” in To Be Free: Studies in American Negro History (New York, 1948), p. 197. For the cases of Samuel Martin and John B. Meachum, see Journal of Negro History 3 (1918): 91; 13 (1928): 534. For the self-purchase of Peter Still, see Kate E. R. Pickard, The Kidnapped and the Ransomed. Being the Personal Recollections of Peter Still and His Wife “Una” After Forty Years of Slavery (Syracuse, N.Y., 1856); John Fowler, “Peter Still versus the Peculiar Institution,” Civil War History 13 (December 1967): 342–43. For the free Negro’s role in such arrangements, see Mattison, op. cit., pp. 165–66. The discussion of appeals for help in purchasing one’s family is based on Aptheker, op. cit., pp. 36–39; Narrative of the Life of Rev. Noah Davis (Baltimore, 1859), preface; Pickard, op. cit.; Martin W. Hawkins, LunsfordLane (Boston, 1863), pp. 132–33; Martin Luther King, Jr., Why We Can’t Wait (New York, 1964), pp. 120–21. The case of Edward Brown is discussed in Boston Commonwealth reprinted in Liberator, September 8, 1854.

Fear of and Restrictions on Free Blacks

The memorial of Charleston citizens is in John R. Commons, ed., A Documentary History of the American Industrial Society (Cleveland, 1910), 2:108–9. The Charleston Mercury is reprinted in National Anti-Slavery Standard, March 1, 1852. For the Jackson Semi-Weekly Mississippian, see Berlin, op. cit., p. 341. The comment of the New Orleans editor is in Richard Wade, Slavery in the Cities (New York, 1967), pp. 250–51. The discussion of the 1840 census is based on Alexander Thomas and Samuel Sillen, Racism and Psychiatry (New York, 1972), pp. 16–19.

For restrictions on free blacks, see Berlin, op. cit.; Russell, op. cit., pp. 122–25; Sydnor, op. cit., pp. 769–72; Brown, op. cit., pp. 118–25; Wilkramangrake, op. cit., pp. 73–82; Andrew Forest Muir, “The Free Negro in Galveston County, Texas,” Negro History Bulletin 22 (December 1958): 68.

Economic Status of Free Blacks

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Berlin, op. cit., pp. 235–38, 320–24; John A. Munroe, “The Negro in Delaware,” South Atlantic Quarterly 56 (Autumn 1958): 428–34; John Hope Franklin, Free Negro in North Carolina, 1790–1860 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1943), p. 47; Robert E. Reinder, “The Free Negro in the New Orleans Economy, 1850–1860,” Louisiana History 61 (Summer 1965): 274–76; Philip S. Foner and Ronald L. Lewis, eds., The Black Worker: A Documentary History from Colonial Times to the Present (Philadelphia, 1978), 1:196–235; M. Ray Della, Jr., “The Problems of Negro Labor in the 1850’s,” Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (Spring 1971): 13–20, 28; Donald E. Everett, “Free Persons of Color in New Orleans, 1803–1865” (Ph.D. diss., Tulane University, 1952), pp. 44–55.

Education for Free Blacks and Persecution of Margaret Douglass

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: E. Franklin Frazier, The Free Negro Family: A Study of Family Origins before the Civil War (Nashville, Tenn., 1932), pp. 12–16; Nathan Willey, “Education of the Free Colored Population of Louisiana,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 33 (July 1, 1866): 245–48; Russell, op. cit., pp. 142–45; Richmond Enquirer, March 4, 1853; Daniel D. Bellamy, “The Education of Blacks in Missouri Prior to 1861,” Journal of Negro History 59 (April 1974): 143–57; Margaret Douglass, The Personal Narrative of Mrs. Margaret Douglass, a Southern Woman Who Was Imprisoned for One Month in the Common Jail of Norfolk, under the Laws of Virginia, for the Crime of Teaching Colored Children to Read (Boston, 1854); American Beacon (Norfolk), November 26, 1853; Norfolk Argus, February 9, 1854; Liberator, March 7, December 8, 1854; New York Times, November 29, December 6, 1853; National Anti-Slavery Standard, February 8, 1854.

On education in Washington, D.C., see Lillian G. Davney, The History of Schools for Negroes in the District of Columbia, 1807–1947 (Washington, D.C., 1949), pp. 12–21; Carter G. Woodson, Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 (New York, 1915), pp. 133–44, 266–67. For Myrtilla Miner, see Ellen O’Connor, Myrtilla Miner (New York, 1889); Henry Barnard, “Education in the District of Columbia,” American Journal of Education 19 (1870): 201, 206–9. For Frederick Douglass’ tribute to Myrtilla Miner, see Philip S. Foner, ed., Frederick Douglass on Women’s Rights (Westport, Conn., 1976), pp. 160–62.

Black Churches and Black Social Fraternal, and Benevolent Organizations

This section is based on the following sources: Berlin, op. cit., pp. 241–42, 296–99, 302–05; Acts Passed at a General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia…in the Year of our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-One (Richmond, Va., 1832), pp. 20–22; E. Franklin Frazier, The Negro in the United States (New York, 1957), pp. 98–125; Janet Duitman Cornelius, “God’s Schoolmasters: Southern Evangelists to the Slaves, 1830–1860” (Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1977), pp. 130–54.

For black organizations, see E. Horace Fitchett, “The Free Negro in Charleston, South Carolina” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1950), pp. 29–56; Berlin, op. cit., pp. 309–16; Henry S. Robinson, “Some Aspects of the Free Negro Population of Washington, D.C., 1800–1862,” Maryland Historical Magazine 64 (Spring 1969): 60; Foner and Lewis, op. cit., 1:109–13: Norfolk American Beacon, April 21, 22, 25, 1854.

Deterioriation of the Status of Free Blacks

This section is based on the following sources: Berlin, op. cit., pp. 131–37, 312–16; Helen T. Caterall, Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro (Washington, D.C., 1932), 3:601; Annie Lee Stahl, “The Free Negro in Ante-Bellum Louisiana” (master’s thesis, Louisiana State University, 1934), pp. 23–32; Robert C. Reinders, “The Decline of the New Orleans Free Negro in the Decade before the Civil War,” Journal of Mississippi History 24 (April 1962): 89–94; Laura Foner, op. cit., pp. 427–28; Julia Floyd Smith, Slavery and Plantation Growth in Antebellum Florida 1821–1860 (Gainesville, Fla., 1973), pp. 119, 121; Wade, op. cit., p. 269; Virginia C. Moore, “The Free Negro in Texas, 1845–1860” (master’s thesis, Lamar State College of Technology, 1969), pp. 54, 57; Texas Almanac for 1858 (Galveston, Tex., 1857), pp. 132; National Anti-Slavery Standard, February 18, 1860.

9. FREE BLACKS IN THE ANTEBELLUM NORTH I

William Hamilton, An Oration Delivered in the African Church, on the Fourth of July, 1827, in Commemoration of the Abolition of Slavery in the State (New York. 1827), pp. 5–6; William Chambers, Things as They Are in America (New York, 1968), p. 357.

Segregation and Exclusion: East and West

For the populations of Philadelphia, Boston, and New York City, see U.S. Bureau of the Census, Negro Population, 1790–1915 (Washington, D.C., 1918), pp. 60–62; J. D. B. DeBow, Statistical View of the United States (Washington, D.C., 1854), p. 63; U.S. Census Office, Population of the United States in 1860 (Washington, D.C., 1864), p. 337. For Douglass’ comment on Philadelphia, see Philip S. Foner, Essays in Afro-American History (Philadelphia, 1978), pp. 22–23. Tocqueville’s comment is in George Wilson Pierson, Tocqueville in America (New York, 1959), p. 33. The “Last Supper” incident is reported in Pennsylvania Freeman, September 25, 1845; the incident involving Purvis’ son is in The Non-Slaveholder, new ser., 1 and 2 (1853–1854): 101. For Sarah Forten’s letter, see Gilbert Barnes, ed., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld, and Sarah Grimké (New York, 1934), pp. 273, 379–81.

The discussion of legislation affecting free blacks in Ohio is based on the following sources: Frank U. Quillen, The Color Line in Ohio: History of Race Prejudice in a Typical Northern State (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1913), pp. 38–45; Alan Peskin, ed., North into Freedom: The Autobiography of John Malvin (Cleveland, 1966), pp. 6–8, 30–40; Stephen Bennett Hanin, “The Free Negro in Ohio, 1829–1839” (master’s thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 1961), pp. 24–37; Richard A. Folk, “Black Man’s Burden in Ohio, 1849–1863” (Ph.D. diss., University of Toledo, 1972), pp. 22–138. For the auction in Chicago, see the article by Marion Neville in Butcher Workman, reprinted in Daily Worker, July 25, 1965.

Eugene H. Berwanger’s comment is in his The Frontier against Slavery: Western Anti-Negro Prejudice and the Slavery Extension Controversy (Urbana, Ill., 1968), p. 62. For Illinois, see Franklin Johnson, The Development of State Legislation Concerning the Free Negro (New York, 1918), pp. 96, 99; James Freeman Clarke, Present Condition of the Free People of Color of the United States (New York, 1859), pp. 3–4. For Oregon, see Archie Mares Henderson, “Introduction of the Negroes into the Pacific Northwest, 1788–1842” (master’s thesis, University of Washington, 1949), p. 36; Franz M. Schneider, “The ‘Black Laws’ of Oregon” (master’s thesis, University of Santa Clara, 1970), pp. 16–18; Frederick Douglass’ Paper, November 13, 1851, August 31, 1855; Daniel G. Hill, “The Negro as a Political and Social Issue in the Oregon Country,” Journal of Negro History 33 (1948): 130–45. The discussion of California is based on: Mifflin Wistar Gibbs, Shadow and Light: An Autobiography (Washington, D.C., 1901; reprint ed., New York, 1968), pp. 42–68; Delilah C. Beaseley, Negro Trail Blazers in California (Westport, Conn., 1969), pp. 72–85; Roger Daniels and Spencer C. Olin, Jr., Racism in California: A Reader in the History of Oppression (New York, 1972), pp. 20–54. Rudolph M. Lapp, “Negro Rights Activities in Gold Rush California,” California Historical Society Quarterly 45 (March 1966): 9.

Negro Ghettoes

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Seth M. Scheiner, Negro Mecca, A History of the Negro in New York City 1865–1920 (New York, 1965), p. 16; W.E.B. Du Bois, Some Notes on the Negroes in New York City (Atlanta, Ga., 1903), pp. 1–2; Charles Dickens, American Notes for General Circulation (London, 1846), 1:191–92, 211–18; New York City, City Inspector Annual Report (1842), p. 165, Annual Report (1857); George E. Walker, “The Negro in New York City, 1827–1860” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1972), pp. 14–15; Sam Bass Warner, Jr., The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods of Its Growth (Philadelphia, 1968), pp. 126–27; Kenneth L. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black Cleveland, 1870–1930 (Urbana, Ill., 1976), p. 31; James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians: Family Life and Community Struggle in the Antebellum North (New York and London, 1979), pp. 5–6.

Jim Crow Transportation

For the origins of Jim Crow, see Hans Nathan, Dan Emmett and the Rise of Early Negro Minstrelsy (Norman, Okla., 1962), pp. 72–85; James H. Dormon, “The Strange Career of Jim Crow Rice (with apologies to Professor Woodward),” Journal of Social History 3 (Winter 1969–1970): 109–22. The story of Mrs. Wright is in Colored American, October 24, 1840; that of Thomas Downing is in ibid., January 16, February 20, 1841; that of Frederick Douglass is in Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, rev. ed. (New York, 1962), pp. 223–25; that of Reverend Pennington is in New York Evangelist, reprinted in African Repository 29 (March 1853): 82; that of Richard Warner is in New York Tribune, reprinted in Frederick Douglass’ Paper, May 27, 1853, and that of Elizabeth Jenkins, is in Frederick Douglass’ Paper, June 29, 1854; National Anti-Slavery, March 3, 1855. For the experience of William Wells Brown, see his The American Fugitive in Europe: Sketches of Places and People Abroad (New York, 1855), pp. 312–13. The discussion of the Philadelphia streetcar ban against Negroes is based on Philip S. Foner, “The Battle to End Discrimination against Negroes on Philadelphia’s Streetcars: Part I: Background and Beginning of the Battle,” Pennsylvania History 40 (July 1973): 261–90, reprinted in Philip S. Foner, Essays in Afro-American History (Philadelphia, 1979), pp. 19–50. See also Goin v. McCandless, 4 Philadelphia Reports 255–58 (1861).

Antiblack Riots

For the attacks on black women in Philadelphia, see Philadelphia Gazette, June 30, 1819, November 21, 1825; National Enquirer, April 8, 1837; Edward Raymond Turner, The Negro in Pennsylvania: Slavery-Servitude-Freedom, 1639–1861 (Washington, D.C., 1911), p. 145; The discussion of the Hardscrabble riot in Providence is based on: Julian Rammelkamp, “The Providence Negro Community, 1820–1842,” Rhode Island History 7 (January 1948): 26–28; reprinted in John H. Bracey, Jr., August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick, eds., Free Blacks in America, 1800–1860 (Belmont, Calif., 1971), pp. 90–91; Liberator, October 1, 1831 ; J. A. Randall to Mowry Randall, September 25, 1831, MS., Brown University Library, Providence; Philip S. Foner and Ronald L. Lewis, eds., The Black Worker: A Documentary History from Colonial Times to the Present (Philadelphia, 1979), 1:167–69; Robert J. Cottrol, The Afro-Yankees: Providence’s Black Community in the Antebellum Era (Westport, Conn., 1982), pp. 53–55. The discussion of the riots in Philadelphia is based on the following sources: Philadelphia Public Ledger, August 2–4, 1842, October 10, 12, 13, 1849; Emma Jones Lapsansky, “ ‘Since They Got Those Separate Churches’: Afro-Americans and Racism in Jacksonian Philadelphia,” American Quarterly 32 (Spring 1970): 54–78; Warner, op. cit., pp. 126–27; Nicholas B. Wainwright, A Philadelphia Perspective: The Diary of George Sidney Fisher Covering the Years 1834–1871 (Philadelphia, 1967), p. 135; W.E.B. Du Bois, The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study (Philadelphia, 1899), pp. 27–28; George Fisk, “Hunting the ‘Nigs’: The 1842 Riot in Philadelphia,” Pennsylvania History 40 (July 1973): 188–205; Robert Purvis to Henry C. Wright, August 22, 1842, Anti-Slavery Letters to William Lloyd Garrison and Others, Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room.

Disfranchising the Black Voter

This section is based on the following sources: James T. Adams, “Disfranchisement of Negroes in New England,” American Historical Review 30 (April 1924): 545–56; Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of Delegates, Convened at Hartford, August 26, 1818, for the Purpose of Forming a Constitution of Civil Government for the People of Connecticut (Hartford, Conn., 1901), pp. 46, 90; Proceedings of the New Jersey Constitutional Convention of 1844 (n.p., 1942), pp. 39–40, 76–111; Charles Z. Lincoln, The Constitutional History of New York from the Beginning of the Colonial Period to 1905 (Rochester, N.Y., 1906), 1:198–99; Constitution of the State of New York, Adopted in Convention, November 10th, 1821 (Hudson, N.Y., 1822), p. 8; Edward Price, “The Black Voting Rights Issue in Pennsylvania, 1780–1900,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 100 (July 1976): 357–63; Hobbs v. Fogg, 46 Pennsylvania Supreme Court Reports, 553–60 (1838); Proceedings and Debates of the Convention of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to Propose Amendments to the Constitution, Commenced and Held at Harrisburg on the Second Day of May, 1837 (Harrisburg, Pa., 1837–1839), 1:233–36, 472–84; 3:82–83; 7:3, 295, 357, 384; 8:40, 91; 11:66; Robert Purvis, Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens, Threatened with Disfranchisement, to the People of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1838); Charles H. Wesley, “Negro Suffrage in the Period of Constitution Making, 1787–1861,” Journal of Negro History 32 (April 1947): 130–38; Emil Olbrich, The Development of Sentiment on Negro Suffrage to 1860 (Madison, Wis., 1912), pp. 53–64; Report of the Debates and Proceedings of the Convention for the Revision of the Constitution of the State of Indiana, 1850 (Indianapolis, 1950), pp. 232, 233–34; Arthur C. Cole, ed., “The Constitutional Debates of 1847,” Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library 14 (Constitutional Series), 2 (Springfield, Ill., 1919), pp. 217, 226–27; John G. Gregory, “Negro Suffrage in Wisconsin,” Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 11 (1896–1897): 94–98; David McBride, “Black Protest against Racial Politics: Gardner, Hinton and Their Memorial,” Pennsylvania History 46 (April 1979): 149–62; Phyllis F. Field, The Politics of Race in New York: The Struggle for Black Suffrage in the Civil War Era (Ithaca, N.Y., 1982), pp. 19–42.

10. FREE BLACKS IN THE ANTEBELLUM NORTH II

Earning a Living

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Carter G. Woodson, “The Negroes of Cincinnati Prior to the Civil War,” Journal of Negro History 1 (January, 1916): 122–27; Allan Peskin, ed., North into Freedom (Cleveland, 1966), pp. 91–92; Richard A. Folk. “Black Man’s Burden in Ohio” (Ph.D. diss., University of Toledo, 1972), pp. 34–42; Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, Report on the Conditions of the People of Color in the State of Ohio (Boston, 1836), pp. 3–4; Philip S. Foner and Ronald L. Lewis, eds., The Black Worker (Philadelphia, 1979), 1:154–57; Robert Ernst, “The Economic Status of New York City Negroes, 1850–1863,” Negro History Bulletin 12 (1949): 139–43; John Campbell, Negromania (Philadelphia, 1851), p. 32; John Daniels, In Freedom’s Birthplace: A Study of the Boston Negro (Boston and New York, 1914), pp. 21, 26; James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians (New York, 1979), pp. 7–15; Frederick Douglass, “My Escape to Freedom,” Century Magazine 23 (November 1881): 125–31; Michael Fielding, The Philadelphia Riots of 1844: A Study of Ethnic Conflicts (Westport, Conn., 1975), pp. 7–8; Philadelphia Public Ledger, September 16, 1834; Theodore Hershberg, “Slavery and the Northern City: Ante Bellum Black Philadelphia: An Urban Perspective” (Paper presented at Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1970), pp. 11–13; Theodore Hershberg, “Free Blacks in Antebellum Philadelphia,” in Allen F. Davis and Mark H. Haller, eds., The People of Philadelphia: A History of Ethnic Groups and Lower-Class Life, 1790–1940 (Philadelphia, 1973), pp. 132–37; Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, The Present State and Condition of the Free People of Color of the City of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1837), pp. 9–10; Statistical Inquiry into the Condition of the People of Color of the City and Districts of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1849), pp. 17–18; Statistics of the Colored People of Philadelphia, Taken by Benjamin C. Bacon (Philadelphia, 1859), pp. 25–26; Frederick Douglass’ Paper, March 4, 1853; Philip S. Foner, ed., The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York, 1950), 2:224; New York Tribune, September 30, 1857; Carter G. Woodson and Lorenzo J. Greene, The Negro Wage Earner (Washington, D.C., 1930), p. 213; Philip Taft, Organizer Labor in American History (New York, 1964), p. 664; Philip S. Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker, 1619–1973 (New York, 1974), pp. 4–5, 10.

Blacks and Public Schools

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: M. H. Freeman, “The Educational Wants of the Free Colored People,” Anglo-African Magazine 1 (April 1859): 115; Horton and Horton, op. cit., pp. 70–71; Tenth Annual Report of the Controller of the Public Schools (Philadelphia, 1828), p. 6; Twentieth Annual Report of the Controllers of the Public Schools (Philadelphia, 1838), pp. 4–20; African Observer (Philadelphia), July 18, 1827, pp. 122–23; Laws of the General Assembly of the State of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, Pa., 1854), pp. 622–25; A Memorial to the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth by the Colored Citizens of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1854); Freedom’s Journal, June 1, 1827, emphasis in original; Carter G. Woodson, The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 (New York, 1915), pp. 313–15; New York Tribune, April 21, 1855, March 8, 1859; Superintendent of Schools (V. M. Rice), Seventh Annual Report (Buffalo, N.Y., 1854), p. 28; Arthur O. White, “The Black Movement against Jim Crow Education in Lockport, New York, 1835–1876,” New York History 50 (July 1969): 268–69; Rochester Daily Advertiser, May 7, 8, 1830, October 7, 1834; North Star, January 31, 1848; George E. Walker, “The Afro-American in New York City, 1827–1860” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1972), pp. 79–86; Thomas Boese, Public Education in the City of New York (New York, 1969), pp. 146–47; Eve Thurston, “Ethiopia Unshackled: A Brief History of the Education of Negro Children in New York City,” Bulletin of the New York Public Library 59 (April 1965): 219–21; Douglass’ Monthly, March 1859; Folk, op. cit., pp. 233–58; Frederick A. McGinnis, The Education of Negroes in Ohio (Blanchester, Ohio, 1962), pp. 21–32, 49–55; L. D. Easton, “The Colored Schools of Cincinnati,” in Isaac M. Martin, ed., History of the Schools of Cincinnati and Other Educational Institutions, Public and Private (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1900), pp. 185–89; Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Illinois, 1859–60 (Springfield, Ill., 1861), pp. 15–17; Minutes and Proceedings of the Second Annual Convention for Improvement of the Free People of the Color in These United States (Philadelphia, 1832), p. 39.

Blacks and Colleges

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: “The First Black American College Graduate,” Middleburg College News Letter (Spring 1974); Hugh Hawkins, “Edward Jones, First Negro American College Graduate?” School and Society, November 4, 1961, pp. 34–39; William M. Brewer, “John B. Russwurm,” Journal of Negro History 21 (1928): 122–34; Philip S. Foner, ed., “John Browne Russwurm: A Document,” Journal of Negro History 62 (October 1969): 108–15; Jno. B. Russwurm to Col. Jno. S. Russwurm, Bowdoin College, January 9, 1826, original in Ms. section, Tennessee State Library and Archives, copy in Bowdoin College Library; Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black America: Major Speeches by Negroes in the United States, 1797–1971 (New York, 1972), pp. 33–36; Robert Samuel Fletcher, A History of Oberlin College (Oberlin, Ohio, 1943), 1:169–78; Benjamin P. Thomas, Theodore Weld, Crusader for Freedom (New Brunswick, N.J., 1950), pp. 167–71; Folk, op. cit., pp. 39, 157; William Francis Cheek III, “Forgotten Prophet: The Life of John Mercer Langston” (Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1961), pp. 14–15, 38–39, 45–47; Philip S. Foner, “The First Publicly-Elected Black Official in the United States Reports His Election,” Negro History Bulletin 37 (April–May 1974): 337; Leonard W. Johnson, Jr., “History of the Education of Negro Physicians,” Journal of Medical Education 42 (1967): 440; Benjamin Quarles, ed., “Letters from Negro Leaders to Gerrit Smith,” Journal of NegroHistory 27 (October 1942): 338–39. For the situation in Plainfield, New Jersey, see George Fishman in Negro History Bulletin 31 (January 1968): 18–19. For the exclusion of Thomas Paul, Jr., from Dartmouth’s literary society, see Liberator, October 26, 1838.

Black Colleges

For the founding of Ashmun Institution, see Horace Mann Bond, Education for Freedom: A History of Lincoln University, Pennsylvania (Princeton, N.J., 1976), pp. 208–56; Andrew E. Murray, “The Founding of Lincoln University,” Journal of Presbyterian History 5 (Winter 1973): 392–410; George B. Car, John Miller Dickey, D.D.; His Life and Times (Philadelphia, 1929), pp. 220–48; Ralph Randolph Curley, Life of Jehudi Ashmun (Washington, D.C., 1835), Ashmun Institute Records, Langston Hughes Memorial Library, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania; Lincoln University, Alumni Magazine 1 (November 1884): 1–15; John Miller Dickey, Ethiopia Shall Stretch Out Her Hands Unto God (Philadelphia, 1853). For the founding of Wilberforce University, see Frederick A. McGinnis, A History and Interpretation of Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio (Blanchester, Ohio, 1941), pp. 24–92; Folk, op. cit., pp. 21–22.

11. THE FREE BLACK COMMUNITY IN THE ANTEBELLUM NORTH

For the contemporary analysis of the status of free blacks in the North, see Charles H. Wesley, Negro Labor in the United States, 1850–1925 (New York, 1927), p. 30.

The Black Church in the North

For Delany’s comment on the church, see North Star, February 6, 1849; Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), p. 69. The development of the AME church is set forth in Daniel A. Payne, History of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (Nashville, Tenn., 1891); Carol G. George, Segregated Sabbaths: Richard Allen and the Emergence of the Independent Black Churches, 1760–1840 (New York, 1973); Christopher Rush, A Short Account of the Rise and Progress of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in America (New York, 1843). For the African Methodist Episcopal Zion church, see Bishop J. W. Wood, D.D., L.L.D., One Hundred Years of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (New York, 1955); John Greenleaf, A History of the Churches of All Denominations in the City of New York, From the First Settlement to the Year 1846 (New York, 1846), pp. 320–25; National Anti-Slavery Standard, April 19, 1849; North Star, July 14, 1848; George E. Walker, “The Afro-American in New York City, 1827–1860” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1972), pp. 125–28. For black Presbyterian churches, see Lewis Evans Jackson, Walks About New York. Facts and Figures Gathered from Various Places (New York, 1865), p. 23; Walker, op. cit., pp. 134–35. Cornish’s complaint against the Presbyterian church is in Emancipator, November 2, 1837. For the Episcopalians, see Robert A. Bennett, “Black Episcopalians,” Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 43 (September 1974): 236–39. The role of the black church in fostering cooperation is in W.E.B. Du Bois, Economic Cooperation among American Negroes (Atlanta, Ga., 1907), p. 10.

The account of the black female minister is in National Anti-Slavery Standard, May 1, 1843. For the varied activities of black ministers, see Freedom’s Journal, April 6, 1827, January 25, 1828, January 11, 1829; Rights of All, June 12, 1829; Colored American, October 17, 1840; National Anti-Slavery Standard, April 7, 1842; Walker, op. cit., pp. 141–42; James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians (New York, 1979), pp. 32–33, 40–43; Carter G. Woodson, History of the Negro Church, 2d ed. (Washington, D.C., 1924), p. 110; E. Franklin Frazier, Black Bourgeoisie (New York, 1969), p. 101; E. Eric Lincoln, The Black Experience in Religion (New York, 1974); Charles V. Hamilton, The Black Preacher in America (New York, 1972). For the Institute of Colored Youth in Philadelphia, see Charline F. A. Conyers, “A History of Cheyney State Teachers College, 1837–1851” (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1960); Objects and Regulations of the Institute for Colored Youth with a List of Officers and the Students, and the Annual Report of the Board of Managers for the Year 1860 (Philadelphia, 1860); Pennsylvania Freeman, April 7, 1853; Liberator, September 29, 1853; National Anti-Slavery Standard, May 16, 1857.

Black Mutual Aid and Benevolent Societies

Information on black mutual aid and benevolent societies in Philadelphia may be found in Edward Needles, Statistical Inquiry into the Condition of People of Colour, of the City and Districts of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1849); Benjamin C. Bacon, Statistics of the Colored People of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1856); Philadelphia Press, September 12, 1860; North Star, February 2, 1849. For the African Humane Society of Boston, see Liberator, August 4, 1832, November 22, 1861. For mutual aid and benevolent societies in New York City, see Daniel Perlman, “Organizations of the Free Negro in New York City, 1800–1860,” Journal of Negro History 54 (July 1971): 182–92; Karl Bernhard, Duke of Saxe Neiman-Eisenach, Travels through North America (London, 1826), 1:126; Walker, op. cit., pp. 91–92, 283–85; Freedom’s Journal, January 9, 1829. The Colored Orphan Asylum is discussed in (Rev.) J. F. Richmond, New York and Its Institutions, 1609–1872 (New York, 1872), pp. 302–3; Association for the Benefit of Colored Orphans, First Annual Report (New York, 1837), p. 13; National Anti-Slavery Standard, June 24, 1852. For the Society for the Relief of Aged, Indigent Colored Persons, see Mary W. Thompson, Sketches of the History, Character, and Dying Testimony of the Beneficiaries of the Colored Home in the City of New York (New York, 1851), pp. 75–76; Walker, op. cit., pp. 188–90. The discussion of black seamen and the Colored Seamen’s Home is based on Samuel Eliot Morison, Maritime History of Massachusetts (Boston, 1921), pp. 110–11, 257; Philip S. Foner, “William P. Powell, Militant Champion of Black Seamen,” in Philip S. Foner, Essays in Afro-American History (Philadelphia, 1978), pp. 89–98; North Star, February 11, 1848, April 7, 1849. For black mutual aid societies of black workers, the American League of Colored Laborers, and the action of the black waiters of New York, see Philip S. Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker, 1619–1973 (New York, 1974), pp. 10–11; New York Daily Tribune, July 3, 1850; Philip S. Foner and Ronald L. Lewis, eds., The Black Worker: A Documentary History, Vol. 1 (Philadelphia, 1978), pp. 220–23.

Black Fraternal Societies

The discussion of black Masons is based on Harold Van Buren Voorhis, Negro Masonry in the United States (New York, 1940), pp. 203–35; Martin R. Delany, The Origin and Objects of Ancient Free Masonry; Its Introduction into the United States and Legitimacy Among Colored Men (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1853), pp. 8–26. For the black Odd Fellows, see Ram’s Horn, November 5, 1847; Perlman, op. cit., pp. 195–96; Horton and Horton, op. cit., pp. 33–34; Richard Bardolph, The Negro Vanguard (New York, 1959), pp. 28, 31; New York Tribune, September 5, 1856.

Black Self-Improvement Societies

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Dorothy B. Porter, “The Organized Educational Activities of Negro Literary Societies, 1822–1846,” Journal of Negro Education 51 (October 1936): 558–76; Colored American, April 15, 29, 1837, May 2, 1840; Perlman, op. cit., p. 193; Walker, op. cit., pp. 100–106; Liberator, May 3, December 18, 1840, January 21, 1842; Horton and Horton, op. cit., pp. 31, 91; Quarles, op. cit., pp. 104–5; Banneker Institute Lecture and Debates, 1859–1861, February 2, 16, 23, 1859, pp. 8–9, Gardiner Papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Banneker Institute Minutes for May 20, 1858, pp. 142–43, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Harry C. Silcox, “Philadelphia Negro Educator: Jacob C. White, 1837–1902,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 97 (January 1973): 82–83; Anglo-African, January 26, February 16, 1861.

Black Temperance Societies

Black temperance societies are discussed in Quarles, op. cit., pp. 92–100, and Richard A. Folk, “Black Man’s Burden in Ohio, 1849–1863” (Ph.D. diss., University of Toledo, 1972), pp. 225–28. See also Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), August 10, 1850, January 14, 1854; Cincinnati Daily Enquirer, January 9, 1950. For the number of black societies in New York and Philadelphia, see Perlman, op. cit., p. 182; E. Franklin Frazier, The Negro in the United States (New York, 1849), p. 270.

The Black Press: Freedom’s Journal and Rights for All

A study of the first Negro paper in the United States, though poorly organized, is Bella Gross, “Freedom’s Journal and the Rights for All,” Journal of Negro History 17 (July 1932): 110–36. Most of the discussion in the section is based on the files of Freedom’s Journal, which is available on microfilm in many libraries. Extracts from Freedom’s Journal and Rights for All appear in Martin E. Dann, ed., The Black Press, 1827–1890 (New York, 1971). The report by Cornish on Phillis Wheatley is in the issue of January 23, 1827; “The Black Beauty” is in that of June 8, 1827; the attack on the New York press is in the issue of May 11, 1827; and the attack on Freedom’s Journal by Reverend Miller of Princeton is in the issue of October 12, 1827. For the articles on Haiti, see issues of April 20, 27, May 4, June 15, 26, 29, 1827; those on Touissaint L’Ouverture, see issues of May 4, 11, 18, 1827. Russwurm’s conversion to colonization is discussed in J. Staudenraus, The American Colonization Movement, 1816–1865 (New York, 1961), pp. 191–92. For other discussions of the first two black papers, see Frederick Cooper, “Elevating the Race: The Social Thought of Black Leaders, 1827–1850,” American Quarterly 24 (1972): 607; Lawrence Fortenberry, “Freedom’s Journal: The First Black Medium,” Black Scholar 6 (November 1974): 33–37; and David E. Swift, “Black Presbyterian Attacks on Racism: Samuel Cornish,Theodore Wright and Their Contemporaries,” Journal of Presbyterian History 57 (Winter 1973): 437–51.

The Black Press: Other Black Papers

For the Colored American, see Weekly Advocate, February 25, 1837; Colored American, September 1, December 23, 1837, January 13, 1838; Swift, op. cit., pp. 436–43, 446–48. Black papers published in the 1840s and 1850s are listed in I. G. Penn, The Afro-American Press and Its Editors (Springfield, Mass., 1897), pp. 25–57; Martin E. Dann, The Black Press, 1827–1890 (New York, 1972), pp. 18–20, 46–54. References to Benjamin Roberts’ Anti-Slavery Herald appear in the Liberator, May 4, October 12, 1838.

Frederick Douglass and His Paper

For the career of Frederick Douglass up to his founding of the North Star, see Philip S. Foner, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1962), pp. 5–100; Frederick Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Hartford, Conn., 1881), pp. 3–225; Philip S. Foner, ed., Frederick Douglass on Women’s Rights (Westport, Conn., 1976), pp. 8–11. For the Afro-American Magazine, see issue of January 1859, and C. S. Johnson, “Rise of the Negro Magazine, ”Journal of Negro History 13 (October 1929): 11–15, and Penelope L. Bullock, Afro-American Political Press, 1838–1909 (Baton Rouge, 1981), pp. 54–63. The statement of the Pennsylvania State Convention is in Philip S. Foner and George E. Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 1840–1865 (Philadelphia, 1979), p. 114. John Hope Franklin regards Samuel E. Cornish as the outstanding Negro journalist of the pre-Civil War period—From Slavery to Freedom, 3d ed. (New York, 1967), p. 252— but I believe this honor should be accorded Frederick Douglass.

In concluding the study of the free Negro before the Civil War, it is worth noting that in 1961 Leon F. Litwack’s North of Slavery, the pioneer study of the free Negro in the North appeared, followed in 1974 by Ira Berlin’s Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. In 1981 there appeared Leonard P. Curry, The Free Black in Urban America, 1800–1850: The Shadow of the Dream (Chicago, 1981). Curry adds some useful information to both of the previous works, especially on housing and residential patterns and on a number of race riots heretofore neglected. But in the main, the book adds little to what is already available, and on such subjects as black employment, it is decidedly inferior. The final chapter on black participation and protest is so summarized as to be almost useless. What is missing, moreover, is a picture of everyday life in the black community—how blacks lived and worked, organized for mutual aid, survival, and social action, as well as the network of family and community that surrounded and strengthened the free blacks. Finally, no attempt is made to note any divisions among the free blacks, the split over fundamental issues, social differences, and the degree to which these tended to disappear in time of crisis.

12. THE FREE BLACK ELITE

Black Trailblazers

Frederick Douglass’ observation appears in Frederick Douglass’ Paper, April 12, 1853. The only biography of James P. Beckwourth is Elinor Wilson, Jim Beckwourth: Black Mountain Man and War Chief of the Crows (Norman, Okla., 1972). A critical edition of Beckwourth’s “autobiography” is The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, introduction, notes, and epilogue by Delmont P. Oswald (Lincoln, Neb., 1972). For the other trailblazers, see Dale T. Schoenberger, “The Black Man in the American West,” Negro History Bulletin 32 (March 1969): 7–11.

Black Men of Wealth

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Martin R. Delany, The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States(Philadelphia, 1852), pp. 90–108; Eugene Monroe Boykin, “Enterprise and Accumulation of Negroes prior to 1860” (master’s thesis, Columbia University, 1934), pp. 30–42; Richard A. Folk, “Black Man’s Burden in Ohio, 1849–1853” (Ph.D. diss., University of Toledo, 1972), pp. 34–38; James F. Clarke, “Condition of the Free Colored People of the United States,” Liberator, March 18, 1859; George Washington Williams, A History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880 (New York, 1883), 2:138–45; Colored American, May 22, 1837, January 13, July 7, 1838, May 11, July 13, September 28, 1839, June 27, 1840; Emancipator, October 19, 1837; National Anti-Slavery Standard, March 20, 1862; Anglo-African Magazine 1 (July 1859): 222–23; Robert Ernst, “The Economic Status of New York City Negroes,” in August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, eds., The Making of Black America (New York, 1970), pp. 258–59; James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians (New York and London, 1979), pp. 9, 10, 11–13; Daniel Alexander Payne, Recollections of Seventy Years (New York, 1888), p. 46; W. H. Boyd, New York City Tax Book (New York, 1857), p. 184; George E. Walker, “The Afro-American in New York City, 1827–1860” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1972), pp. 42–54; New York Tribune, March 20, 1851; Arnett G. Lindsay, “The Negro in Banking,” Journal of Negro History 14 (April 1929): 158; Richard P. McCormick, “William Whipper: Moral Reformer,” Pennsylvania History 43 (January 1976): 39; Stanley J. and Anita W. Robboy, “Lewis Hayden: From Fugitive Slave to Statesman,” New England Quarterly 46 (December 1973): 593–98.

Black Teachers, Doctors, and Lawyers

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Arthur O. White, “Salem’s Antebellum Black Community: Seedbed of the School Integration Movement,” Essex Institute Historical Collections 108 (April 1972): 101; John B. Shotwell, A History of the Schools of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, 1902), pp. 447–61; Folk, op. cit., pp. 40–41; Philip S. Foner, “Peter H. Clark: Pioneer Black Socialist,” Journal of Ethnic Studies 5 (1977): 17–35; Philip S. Foner, The Voice of Black America: Major Speeches by Negroes in the United States, 1797–1971 (New York, 1972), pp. 215–27; New York Tribune, June 12, 1853; James Still, Early Recollections of and Life of Dr. James Still (New Brunswick, N.J., 1973), fascimile reprint of 1877 edition; Louis Placide Canonge, “Louis Charles Rondanez,” L’Abeille (New Orleans), March 13, 1890; Horton and Horton, op. cit., pp. 55–57; “Robert Morris, Sr., In Memoriam” (1882), Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston; Chelsea Telegraph and Pioneer reprinted in Liberator, September 24, 1858; New Bedford Standard reprinted in National Anti-Slavery Standard, October 2, 1858; George W. Forbes, “Typescript Biographical Sketch of John S. Rock” (n.d.), Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room; Eugene P. Link, “The Civil Rights Activities of Three Great Negro Physicians (1840–1940),” Journal of Negro History 52 (July 1967): 172–75; George A. Levesque, “Boston’s Black Brahmin: Dr. John Rock,” Civil War History 26 (1980): 326–46.

Black Artists

The discussion in this section is based on Alain Locke, The Negro in Art (Washington, D.C., 1940); Romare Bearden and Harry Henderson, Black Masters of American Art (New York, 1972); Isaiah A. Woodward, “Joshua Johnston: Baltimore’s First Slave Artist of Distinction,” Negro History Bulletin 21 (April 1958): 166; James A. Porter, “Robert Duncanson, Midwestern Romantic Realist,” Art in America 39 (October 1951): 97–154; Folk, op. cit., pp. 37–38; James A. Porter, “Edmonia Lewis,” Negro History Bulletin 1 (November 1937): 6–7; Philip S. Foner, “Black Participation in the Centennial of 1876,” in Foner, Essays in Afro-American History (Philadelphia, 1978), pp. 137, 138, 140, 141; Edward Strickland, “Our Forgotten Negro Artists,” Masses and Mainstream (September 1954): 34–40.

Black Composers, Musicians, and Singers

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Eileen Southern, The Music of Black Americans: A History (New York, 1971), pp. 105–71; “The Black Swan,” Crisis (March 1941): 212–13; Harold C. Schonberg, “The Black Swan That Sang for the Nobility,” New York Times, April 12, 1970; Cincinnati Daily Times reprinted in Liberator, July 31, 1857; National Anti-Slavery Standard, January 20, February 20, June 30, 1855; Richard Bardolph, The Negro Vanguard (New York, 1959), pp. 58–60.

Black Actors

On the beginning and development of the African Grove Theater, see Philip S. Foner, History of Black Americans: From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom (Westport, Conn., 1975), pp. 539–40, 548–49; and for Ira Aldridge, see Herbert Marshall and Mildred Stock, Ira Aldridge, The Negro Tragedian (Carbondale, Ill., 1958); Owen Mortimer, “Ira Aldridge, Shakesperean Actor,” Crisis (April 1855): 203–15; New York Sunday Atlas reprinted in Liberator, June 26, 1857.

Black Authors

For the slave narratives, see Charles H. Nichols, Many Thousands Gone: The Ex-Slaves’ Account of Their Bondage and Freedom (Leiden, 1963); John W. Blassingame, “Black Autobiographies of History and Literature,” Black Scholar (December 1973–January 1974): 2–4. A study of the evolution of the slave narrative is Ramond Hedin, “The American Slave Narrative: The Justification of the Picaro,” American Literature 53 (January 1982): 630–45.

Frederick Douglass’ “The Heroic Slave” was originally published in Autographs for Freedom, ed. Julia W. Griffiths (Rochester, N.Y., 1853), pp. 174–238. Sections of the short story also appeared in Frederick Douglass’ Paper, March 11, 1853. The story is reprinted in Philip S. Foner, ed., The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York, 1975), 5:473–505. The poem “America” by James M. Whitfield and the poem “The Slave Auction” by Frances E. W. Harper appear in Sterling A. Brown, Arthus P. Davis, and Ulysses L. Lee, eds., The Negro Caravan (New York, 1941), pp. 290–92, 295. For the career of William Wells Brown, see William Edward Farrison, William Wells Brown, Author and Reformer (Chicago and London, 1969). Farrison is also the author of “The Origin of Brown’s Clotel,” Phylon (fourth quarter 1954): 347–54, and “Brown’s First Drama,” CLA Journal 2 (December 1958): 104–10. Clotel or the President’s Daughter was reprinted in 1969 by the Citadel Press with an introduction by William Edward Farrison. An old biography of Martin R. Delany is Frank A. Rollin (pseud.) (Francis E. Rollin Whipper), Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany (Boston, 1868). This has been supplanted by Victory Ullman, Martin R. Delany (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1970). The first publication of Blake, or the Huts of America in book form was by Beacon Press in 1970 and contains a useful introduction by Floyd J. Miller, who discovered the unknown texts in the Weekly Afro-American. An earlier study of the novel, written before Miller’s discovery, is John Zeugner, “A Note on Martin Delany’s Blake, and Black Militancy,” Phylon 32 (1971): 98–105. For the story of Placido, see Philip S. Foner, AHistory of Cuba and Its Relations with the United States (New York, 1962), 1:212–16. For an interesting discussion of these writers, see James Fulcher, “Black Abolitionist Fiction: The Formulaic Art of Douglass, Brown, Delany and Webb,” Journal of American Culture 2 (Winter 1980): 583–97. For the discovery of the novel Our Nig, whose title page states that it was by an author named “Our Nig,” for the identification of Harriet E. Wilson as the author, and for the claim that it is the first black novel published in the United States, all by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., see New York Times, November 8, 1982.

For the criticism of Elizabeth Greenfield and the events surrounding the charges against her, see North Star, February 26, 1852; Aliened American (Cleveland), April 9, 1853; National Anti-Slavery Standard, July 31, 1857; Anglo-African, January 22, 1861.

13. THE COLONIZATION CONTROVERSY

Growth and Ideology of the American Colonization Society

An important source for this section is the African Repository and Colonial Journal, published by the American Colonization Society from 1825 to 1892. There are sixty-eight volumes in all, but only the first thirty-six were consulted. The Repository is a primary source containing a large variety of materials, including letters, reports, and records. Its greatest single defect as a source is that it was a propaganda device of the Colonization Society. As a result, the materials published are usually favorable to the progress of the society’s activities; everything unfavorable was suppressed. Also important as a source for this section is the Annual Report of the American Colonization Society, 1818–1910. The first forty of the ninety-two volumes were consulted. The reports suffer from the same fault as the Repository. The American Colonization Society Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., is a vast collection. The collection has been microfilmed, and there are 323 reels.

The best study of the early growth of the Colonization society is P. J. Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, 1816–1865 (New York, 1961), pp. 42–128. The most perceptive discussions of the Colonization Society and the colonization movement in the South are: Ira Berlin, “Slaves Who were Free: The Free Negro in the Upper South, 1776–1861” (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1970), and Gordon Esley Finney, “The Anti-Slavery Movement in the South, 1787–1836: Its Rise and Decline and Contribution to Abolitionism in the West” (Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 1962). For Southern emancipationist support of colonization as a way of ending slavery, see especially John H. B. Latrobe to R. R. Gurley, January 27, 1827, and Latrobe to A. C. S. Board of Managers, December 29, 1834, American Colonization Society Papers, Library of Congress. For colonization propaganda to assure slaveowners that they had no intention to interfere with slavery, see Proceedings of the Colonization Society of Kentucky, with an Address of Hon. Daniel Mayes (Frankfort, Ky., 1831), and Philip Slaughter, The Virginia History of African Colonization (Richmond, Va., 1855). For the instruction of the Maryland Society to its agents not to deal with slavery, see William McKinney to Moses Shephard, October 30, 1832, Agent’s Letterbook; J. H. Latrobe to William Handy, October 20, 1827, Latrobe Letterbook, Maryland State Colonization Papers, Maryland Historical Society. Robert Y. Haynes’ attack on the ACS is in Annals of Congress, 19th Cong., 2d sess., p. 328. For the colonizationist view that Negroes could never be equal to whites and that blacks were a dangerous and inherently inferior element in American society, see Thirteenth Annual Report, Fourteenth Annual Report, and Fifteenth Annual Report of the American Colonization Society, and the files of the African Repository; Charles I. Foster, “The Colonization of Free Negroes in Liberia, 1816–35,” Journal of Negro History 38 (October 1953): 62–65.

Attitude of Free Blacks toward the American Colonization Society

For a general discussion of this subject, see Louis R. Mehlinger, “The Attitude of the Free Negro toward Colonization,” Journal of Negro History 1 (July 1916): 284–98. The opposition to the Colonization Society in Philadelphia is discussed in Philip S. Foner, History of Black Americans: From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom (Westport, Conn., 1975), pp. 589–94. For economic competition from white immigrants and the inability of black artisans and mechanics to obtain work as a motive for emigration to Liberia, see John Hanson to Rev. Gurley, Baltimore, September 19, 1828, American Colonization Society Papers, and U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Commerce, Report of Mr. Kennedy of Maryland on the Memorial of the Friends of African Colonization assembled in Convention in the City of Washington, May 1842 (Washington, D.C., 1843), pp, 415–18. The 1824 Hardscrabble anti-Negro riot in Provience is discussed in I. H. Bartlett, From Slave to Citizen, The Story of the Negro in Rhode Island (Providence, R.I., 1954), pp. 25–27; in Julian Rammelkamp, “The Providence Negro Community, 1820–1842,” Rhode Island History 7 (January 1948): 21–22, and in Robert J. Cottrol, The Afro-Yankees: Providence’s Black Community in the Antebellum Era (Westport, Conn., 1982), pp. 53–55. For the emigration of Newport blacks, led by Newport Gardiner, to Liberia, see J. Parker, “Slavery in Rhode Island” (master’s thesis, University of Rhode Island, 1959), pp. 30–35. The story of Abd al-Rahman is discussed in Staudenraus, op. cit., pp. 128–46, and in Louis Harlan, “The Prince: The Biography of a Slave,” in Job Ben Solomon and Abd al-Rahman: The Stories of Two Men in Slavery (American Historical Association, Washington, D.C., 1970), pp. 13–19. For the poem and action at the meeting in Boston’s African Masonic Hall, see Boston Columbian Centinel, October 20, 1828, and Freedom’s Journal, October 24, 1828.

John Browne Russwurm’s explanation for his conversion to colonization is in the African Repository, 12:86, 88. For criticism of Russwurm for his procolonization stand, see Carter G. Woodson, The Mind of the Negro as Reflected in Letters Written during the Crisis, 1800–1860 (Washington, D.C., 1926), pp. 160–65. In her study Maryland in Africa: The Maryland State Colonization Society, 1831–1857 (Urbana, Ill., 1971), Penelope Campbell gives Russwurm high marks for his work in Liberia. The arguments advanced by free blacks in opposition to the American Colonization Society and emigration to Liberia are in William Lloyd Garrison, Thoughts on African Colonization (Boston, 1832), Pt. I: 5–15; Pt. II: 21–44. For the Maryland plan, see Berlin, op. cit., pp. 212–14, and Ira Berlin, Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (New York, 1976), pp. 204–7. For the opposition of Baltimore free blacks to the ACS, see C. R. Harper to R. R. Gurley, August 1, 1832, State Manager’s Letterbook, and John Kennard to J.H.B. Latrobe, April 30, 1838, Maryland State Colonization Papers, Maryland Historical Society; Garrison, op. cit,, pp. 21–22. The complaints of the Virginia colonizations are in D. Meade to R. R. Gurley, April 8, 1830, and Benjamin Brand to R. R. Gurley, January 8, 1827, American Colonization Society Papers, Library of Congress. Reverend Peter Williams, Jr.’s address attacking the Colonization Society is in Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black America (New York, 1972), pp. 43–46.

For the 1824 correspondence between the ACS and the government of Haiti to further black emigration to Haiti, see Correspondence Relative to the Emigration to Haiti of the Free People of Colour, in the United States (New York, 1824). Granville’s speech to the New York blacks and Reverend Paul’s endorsement of Haitian emigration are published in Boston Columbian Centinel, July 3, 31, 1824. For black emigration to Canada, see Rights of All, August 14, 1829; Henry N. Sherwood, “The Movement in Ohio to Deport the Negro,” Quarterly Publication of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio 7 (June, 1912): 102–26; Garrison, op. cit., pt. II: 26, 33; James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians (New York, 1979), pp. 91–92.

The meeting of Providence blacks in opposition to emigration to Liberia is in Rammelkamp, op. cit., p. 91. The poem of a “Poor Colored Man” is in the Man (New York), August 9, 1934.

Liberia as Utopia

The address from the “citizens of Monrovia” is in House Reports No. 283, 27th Cong., 3d sess., 2:965–66. This 1,088-page Report is a documented account of African colonization from about 1812 to 1842. For Reverend John T. Matthias’ report, see Colored American, October 20, 1838. Descriptions of the conditions in Liberia in 1838 appear in the African Repository, 36:120–22, 145–48, 164–69. Reverend Sawyer’s report on tension between native Africans and black Americans in Liberia is in Arthur E. Murray, “Experiment in Equality—Liberia, 1843–44” (unpublished paper), p. 7. Reports of meetings of blacks in the North opposing emigration are in Samuel E. Cornish and Theodore S. Wright, The Colonization Scheme Considered in Its Rejection by the Colored People (Newark, N.J., 1840), pp. 4–6, 12–16, 20–21, 26; Colored American, May 9, 1840; Richard A. Folk, “Black Man’s Burden in Ohio, 1829–1853” (Ph.D. diss., University of Toledo, 1972), p. 182; R.J.M. Blackett, “Anglo-American Opposition to Liberian Colonization, 1831–1833,” Historian 41 (1978–1979): 276–94.

Emigration to Trinidad

For the emigration to Trinidad, see Emancipator, July 25, September 5, 12, 26, 1839; Colored American, October 5, 1839; New York Sun, January 11, 1840; African Repository 15:28; 16:22, 115–17; 17:194; Emanuel Saunders, “Efforts to Recruit Black Americans as Laborers for Trinidad, 1839–1842,” Hampton Institute Journal of Ethnic Studies 7 (December 1978): 60–81.

Rejuvenation of Colonization Activities and Colonization Rejected

For the formation of the Republic of Liberia, see David Lindsay, “ ‘The Land of Their Fathers,’ Liberia,” American History Illustrated (May 1972): 32–34. Court decisions facilitating manumission in the South if the liberated slaves left the state and the effect of this on the Colonization Society are discussed in Memory F. Mitchell, “Off to Africa— with Judicial Blessing,” North Carolina Historical Review 53 (Summer 1976): 265–87. The semiliterate letters of Southern free blacks to the Colonization Society are in Woodson, op. cit., pp. 93, 107, 125, 130–32, and in Tom L. McLaughlin, “Sectional Responses of Free Negroes to the Idea of Colonization,” Research Studies 34 (September 1966): 126–28. For “Ohio in Africa,” see Philip S. Foner, Essays in Afro-American History (Philadelphia, 1978), p. 159; African Repository, 27:20–21; Folk, op. cit., pp. 174–83. Frederick Douglass’ stand against colonization is in Frederick Douglass’ Paper, January 26, 1849.

14. THE CONVENTION MOVEMENT

The First National Negro Convention

The major work on the National Negro Convention movement is Howard H. Bell, A Survey of the Negro Convention Movement, 1830–1861 (New York, 1969). Bell has also edited the Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Negro Conventions, 1830–1863 (New York, 1969), although the almost complete lack of editorial annotations and introductory information reduces the value of the publication. Also useful, though marred by poor organization, is Bella Gross, Clarion Call: The History and Development of the Negro People’s Convention Movement in the United States from 1817 to 1840 (New York, 1847). A useful examination of ideas in the convention movement is William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, “The Negro Convention Movement,” in Nathan I. Huggins, Martin Kilson, and Daniel M. Fox, eds., Key Issues in the Afro-American Experience (New York, 1971), 1:191–209.

The National Negro Convention of 1830 is discussed in John W. Cromwell, “The Early Negro Convention Movement,” Occasional Papers of the Negro Academy No. 9 (Washington, D.C., 1904); Bell, Survey, pp. 20–32; Bella Gross, “The First National Negro Convention,” Journal of Negro History 21 (October 1946): 120–38. The proceedings of the convention are in Bell, Minutes, which also reprints the article in the 1859 issue of the Anglo-African Magazine that discusses the origin of the 1830 convention and the role played by Hezekiah Grice as the founder of the convention movement. This article is also reprinted in Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), 1:98–102, which also publishes the address of the 1830 convention, pp. 106–7.

Other Conventions of the 1830s

For the national conventions of 1831–1835, see Bell, Proceedings. For the unsuccessful effort to establish a manual labor college in New Haven, see Liberator, August 20, November 26, December 3, 1831. The views of William Whipper are discussed in Richard P. McCormick, “William Whipper: Moral Reformer,” Pennsylvania History 43 (January 1976): 30–33.

American Moral Reform Society

The best study of the society is Howard H. Bell, “The American Moral Reform Society, 1836–1841,” Journal of Negro Education 27 (Winter 1978): 34–40, and McCormick, op. cit., pp. 34–40, See also Colored American, September 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, November 11, 1837, February 10, March 29, 1838, and National Reformer, March, September, December 1839. Also worth consulting are Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, Bound with Them in Chains (Westport, Conn., 1972), pp. 140–61; Sterling Stuckey, The Ideological Origins of Black Nationalism (Boston, 1972), pp. 118–46; and National Anti-Slavery Standard, October 1, 1840.

Revival of the Negro National Conventions

The discussion in this section is based on Minutes of the National Convention of Colored Citizens (Buffalo, N.Y., August 1843), pp. 8, 10, 13–15, 24, 37–39; Proceedings of the National Convention of Colored People and Their Friends held in Troy, N.Y., … October, 1847, pp. 7–8, 31–32; North Star, January 14, September 19, 1848; Report of Proceedings of Colored National Convention, Held at Cleveland, Ohio, on Wednesday, September 6, 1848 (Rochester, N.Y., 1848), pp. 8, 12.

The 1853 Rochester Convention and Its Aftermath

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Proceedings of the Colored National Convention Held in Rochester, July 6th, 7th, and 8th, 1853 (Rochester, N.Y., 1853), pp. 6–9, 33–38; Proceedings of the Colored Convention Held in Franklin Hall, Sixth Street, Below Arch, Philadelphia, October 16th, 17th and 18th, 1855 (Salem, N.J.); Philip S. Foner, The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York, 1950), 2:28–37; Frederick Douglass’ Paper, August 29, October 2, 9, 16, 1853; Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, They Who Would Be Free (New York, 1974), pp. 170–73.

Black State Conventions

The discussion in this section is based on Philip S. Foner and George E. Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 1840–1865. Volume 1 (Philadelphia, 1979) includes New York, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio; volume 2 (Philadelphia, 1980) includes New Jersey, Connecticut, Maryland, Illinois, Massachusetts, California, and New England. Volume 2 also includes black state conventions in Kansas, Louisiana, Virginia, Missouri, and South Carolina during and immediately after the Civil War.

15. THE BATTLE FOR EQUALITY

The Twin Battle in Massachusetts

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Liberator, June 19, 1840; June 19, July 9, November 4, 1841; April 8, December 1, 1843; Philip S. Foner, The Voice of Black America (New York, 1972), pp. 72–76; Louis Ruchames, “Jim Crow Railroads in Massachusetts,” American Quarterly 8 (July 1956): 61–75; Louis Ruchames, “Race, Marriage and Abolition in Massachusetts,” Journal of Negro History 40 (January 1955): 250–73. For the Massachusetts General Colored Association, see John Daniels, In Freedom’s Birth Place: A Study of the Boston Negroes, 2d ed. (New York, 1968), p. 455.

The Battle for Equal Education: Massachusetts

The 1851 meeting in Boston is reported in Liberator, April 4, 1851. For William C. Nell’s account of his experience in 1829, see Triumph of Equal School Rights in Boston: Proceedings of the Presentation Meeting Held in Boston, December 17, 1855 (Boston, 1856). The discussion of the desegration of public schools in Salem and Nantucket is based on the following sources: Arthur O. White, “Salem’s Antebellum Black Community: Seedbed of the School Integration Movement,” Essex Institute Historical Collections 118 (April 1972): 99–118; Salem Register, March 7, 14, 21, 1844; Salem Register, reprinted in Liberator, March 26, 1858; Nantucket Islander in Liberator, March 18, 1842.

For the struggle for equal education in Boston in its early stages, see Louis Ruchames, “Race and Education in Massachusetts,” Negro History Bulletin 24 (December 1949): 13–18; Arthur O. White, “Blacks and Education in Antebellum Massachusetts: Strategies for Social Mobility” (Ph.D. diss., State University of New York at Buffalo, 1975), pp. 208–35; Report of the Minority of the Committee of the Primary School Board on the Caste Schools of the City of Boston (Boston, 1846); Charles H. Wesley, “The Negro’s Struggle for Freedom in Its Birthplace,” Journal of Negro History 30 (January 1945): 73–78. For the Roberts case, see Roberts v. City of Boston, 5 Cush. 198; The Works of Charles Sumner (Boston, 1874), 2:327–29, 357, 364; Liberator, December 28, 1849, January 11, 1850; Boston Post, November 10, December 27, 1849; Leonard W. Levy and Harlan B. Phillips, “The Roberts Case: Source of the ‘Separate but Equal’ Doctrine,” American Historical Review 56 (April 1951): 511–14; Argument of Charles Sumner against the Constitutionality of Separate Schools (Boston, 1849), pp. 3–4, 10–12, 20. For the controversy over the appointment of Thomas Paul as master of the Smith School, the role of Thomas Paul Smith, and Dr. James McCune Smith, see Liberator, September 7, October 5, November 23, 1849, January 4, February 15, 1850; Arthur O. White, “Antebellum School Reform in Boston: Integrationists and Separatists,” Phylon 34 (1973): 203–14. For the passage of the law desegregating public schools in Massachusetts and the events that followed, see Liberator, March 30, 1855; Boston Evening Telegraph, August 28, 1855; New York Herald in Leon F. Litwack, “The Abolitionist Dilemma: The Anti-Slavery Movement and the Northern Negro,” New England Quarterly 34 (March 1961): 72; Arthur O. White, “Integrated Schools in Antebellum Boston: The Implications of the Black Victory,” Urban Education 6 (July–October 1971): 140–41; Triumph of Equal School Rights, pp. 5–11; Foner, op. cit., pp. 164–68.

The Battle for Equal Education: Rochester, New York

The discussion in this section is based on Philip S. Foner, Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York, 1950), 2:39–41; North Star, August 10, 17, 1849; Douglass’ Monthly, March 1859; Judith Polgar Ruchkin, “The Abolition of ‘Colored Schools’ in Rochester, New York: 1832–1856,” New York History 47 (June 1973): 377–93. For the observation of the New York teacher on the outlook for a black school graduate, see Charles C. Andrew, The History of the New York-African Free Schools (New York, 1830; reprint ed., New York, 1969), pp. 117–18.

The Battle for Equal Education: Rhode Island

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Liberator, January 29, June 10, 1859; Providence Journal, March 28, 29, 1859; Minority Report of the Committee on Education of the General Assembly of the State of Rhode Island on the Abolition of Caste Schools (Providence, 1858); Minority Report of the Committee on Education upon the Petition of Isaac Rice and Others (Providence, 1859); George Downing et al., Will the General Assembly Put Down Caste Schools (n.p., n.d., but signed December 1857); George Downing et al., To the Friends of Equal Rights (n.p., n.d., but signed Providence, 1859); Lorenzo Greene, “Protest against Separate Schools in Rhode Island, 1859,” Midwest Journal 1 (Summer 1949): 102–6; Robert J. Cottrol, The Afro-Yankees: Providence’s Black Community in the Antebellum Era (Westport, Conn., 1982), pp. 95–101.

The Battle for Equal Suffrage: New York

For the petitions to the state legislature, the address of the 1840 state convention, the appeal of the Colored American, the testimony of Henry Highland Garnet, and the refusal of the state legislature to act, see the Colored American, March 1, December 9, 16, 1837; December 12, 1840; February 13, March 13, 1841; Philip S. Foner and George E. Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 1840–1865 (Philadelphia, 1979), 1:1–20; George E. Walker, “The Afro-American in New York City, 1827–1860” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1972), pp. 157–76; Joel Schor, Henry Highland Garnet (Westport, Conn., 1977), p. 43. For the 1846 Constitutional Convention and the events following, see Herkimer Journal reprinted in National Anti-Slavery Standard, May 4, 1843, and the battle for equal suffrage from that point to the Civil War, see Debates and Proceedings in the New York State Convention for the Revision of the Constitution (Albany, N.Y., 1846), pp. 775, 785–87, 842, 852; I. G. Penn, The Afro-American Press and Its Editors (Springfield, Mass., 1890), pp. 61–63; Benjamin Quarles, Black Aholitionists (New York, 1969), p. 173; Weekly Anglo-African, March 31, 1860; New York Tribune, September 6, 1855; Walker, op. cit., pp. 170–85; Emil Olbrich, The Development of Negro Suffrage to 1860 (Madison, Wis., 1901), pp. 30–38, 126–28; Brooklyn Daily Times reprinted in Principia, October 20, 1860; Philip S. Foner, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1964), pp. 186–87; Phyllis F. Field, The Politics of Race in New York: The Struggle for Black Suffrage in the Civil War Era (Ithaca, N.Y., 1982), pp. 114–46.

The Battle for Equal Suffrage: Pennsylvania

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Foner and Walker, op. cit., 1:xvii, 104, 130; Memorial of Thirty Thousand Disfranchised Citizens of Philadelphia to the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives (Philadelphia, 1855); Pennsylvania Freeman, December 21, 1848; Edward Price, Jr., “Let the Law Be Just: The Quest for Racial Equality in Pennsylvania, 1780–1915” (Ph.D. diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1973), pp. 123–27; Edward Price, Jr., “The Black Voting Rights Issue in Philadelphia, 1780–1900,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 100 (July 1976): 362–70; Ann Greenwood Wilmoth, “Negro Suffrage in Nineteenth Century Pennsylvania: A Study in Politics and Prejudice” (master’s thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1970), pp. 40–42.

The Battle for Equal Suffrage: Rhode Island

The discussion of the reenfranchisement of blacks in Rhode Island is based on the following sources: Marvin C. Gettleman, The Dorr Rebellion: A Study in American Radicalism, 1833–1849 (New York, 1973); Julian Rammelkamp, “The Providence Negro Community, 1840–1842,” Rhode Island History 7 (January 1948): 20–33; U.S. Congress, Interference of the Executive in Affairs of Rhode Island, Rpt. 546, 28th Cong., 1st sess., 1844, pp. 111–13; Rhode Island, House of Representatives, Journal of the Convention, Assembled to Frame a Constitution for the State of Rhode Island at Newport, Sept. 12, 1842 (Providence, 1859), pp. 22, 36–37, 45, 48, 51, 57; Foner, Life and Writings of Douglass, 1:48–49; The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Hartford, 1882), pp. 250–52; Quarles, op. cit., pp. 170–75; Peter J. Coleman, The Transformation of Rhode Island, 1790–1860 (Providence, R.I., 1963); Arthur May Mowry, The Dorr War: or, The Constitutional Struggle in Rhode Island (Providence, R.I., 1901), pp. 34–44; J. Stanley Lemons and Michael A. McKenna, “The Re-Enfranchisement of Rhode Island Negroes” (unpublished paper).

The Militia Issue

For William J. Watkins’ speech, see Foner, Voice of Black America, pp. 130–43. The parade of the independent Negro militiamen in Boston is reported in Boston Herald, reprinted in Liberator, November 27, 1857, and Watkin’s query is in ibid., July 15, 1853. For judicial decisions in San Francisco accepting Negro testimony against whites despite the state law banning such testimony, see Rudolph M. Lapp, “Negro Rights Activities in Gold Rush California,” California Historical Society Quarterly 45 (March 1966): 10–11. For “An Address to the Colored People of the United States,” written by Frederick Douglass in 1848, see Foner, Life and Writings of Douglass, 1:331–35.

16. “A FIREBELL IN THE NIGHT”

Antislavery after the War of 1812

For the contributions of George Bourne to abolition and the complete text of the rare 1816 edition of Bourne’s antislavery treatise, see John W. Christie and Dwight L. Dumond, George Bourne and “The Book and Slavery Irreconcilable” (Wilmington, Del., 1969). For the action of the 1818 general assembly of the Presbyterian church against Bourne, see Extracts from the Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of the United States of America (Philadelphia, 1818), pp. 20–21; Andrew E. Murray, Presbyterians and the Negro—A History (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 98–101. For the failure of antislavery in the South between 1800 and 1820 to make any real impact, see Gordon Esley Finnie, “The Anti-Slavery Movement in the South, 1787–1836” (Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 1962); John Michael Shay, “The Anti-Slavery Movement in North Carolina” (Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1971); Kenneth M. Stampp, “The Fate of the Southern Anti-Slavery Movement,” Journal of Negro History 28 (January 1943): 10–22. For the view that a flourishing and effective antislavery movement existed in the South during this period, see William M. Boyd, “Charles Osborn: Pioneer American Abolitionist,” and “Southerners in the Anti-Slavery Movement, 1800–1831,” Phylon 8 (second quarter 1947): 101–22, 154–66. For James Jones’ proposal to Congress to abolish the internal slave trade, see Larry Gara, “A Southern Quaker’s Plan to Abolish Slavery,” Quaker History 58 (Autumn 1969): 104–7, and for the Union Humane Society, see Randall M. Miller, “The Union Humane Society,” Quaker History 61 (Autumn 1972): 91–106. The resurgence of slavery is discussed in David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770–1823 (New York, 1978).

The Missouri Controversy and the Missouri Compromise

The events leading up to the Missouri Compromise are discussed in Glover Moore, The Missouri Controversy, 1819–1821 (Lexington, Ky., 1953), and in Donald C. Robinson, Slavery in the Structure of American Politics, 1765–1820 (New York, 1971), pp. 408–23. See also William R. Johnson, “Prelude to the Missouri Controversy,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 24 (Spring 1965): 47–56. The article deals with the effort, which failed, to exclude slavery from Arkansas Territory. For contemporary sources, see L. Shaw, “Slavery and the Missouri Question,” North American Review 10 (1820); Thomas Hart Benton, Thirty Years View (New York, 1854), Vol. 1; Charles Francis Adams, ed., Memoirs of John Quincy Adams (Philadelphia, 1875), Vol. 4; Niles’ Weekly Register 17. The debates in Congress cited in the discussion are in Annals of Congress, 15th Cong., 1st sess., pp. 974–75; 2d sess., pp. 122, 238, 251, 272–73, 279, 280–83; 418, 1166, 1170, 1434–38; 16th Cong., 1st sess., pp. 70–72, 119, 123, 124, 153, 179, 184, 210, 217, 229, 247, 266, 331–83, 987–95, 1089, 1134, 1231–34, 1263, 1299–1300, 1311–15, 1497, 1537, 1820; 16th Cong., 2d sess., pp. 79, 1022–24, 1107–11, 1102–7, 1144, 1784–86. Cushman’s and Taylor’s speeches are in ibid., 15th Cong., 2d sess., pp. 1191–93, and 16th Cong., 1st sess., pp. 952, 964–65. For Rufus King’s speeches and the reaction to them, see Charles R. King, ed., Life and Correspondence of Rufus King (New York, 1894–1900), 6:700; Niles’ Weekly Register 17, pp. 218–19; Adams, op. cit., 4:517; Gaillard Hunt, ed., The Writings of Madison (New York, 1900–1910), 9:517; Frederick J. Turner, Rise of the New West, 1819–1829 (New York, 1906), pp. 155–58. The pamphlet containing King’s speeches is Rufus King, Substance of Two Speeches Delivered in the Senate of the United States on the Subject of the Missouri Bill (New York, 1819).

The influence of the Declaration of Independence on the debates is discussed in Philip F. Detweiler, “Congressional Debate on Slavery and the Declaration of Independence, 1819–1821,” American Historical Review 63 (April 1958). For meetings in the North, and the memorials adopted, see Niles’ Weekly Register 17, pp. 200, 241–42, 296, 297, and Moore, op. cit., pp. 190–232. For efforts of antislavery forces in Missouri to restrict slavery in the 1820 constitution, see John Merkel, “The Anti-Slavery Movement in Missouri, 1819–1865” (Ph.D. diss., Washington University, 1939), pp. 21–22, and for the Missouri constitution, see State Papers, Senate Doc. 1, House Doc. 2., 16th Cong., 2d sess.; for the Missouri question, see Annals of Congress, 16th Cong., 2d sess., pp. 1019, 1219–40, 1784–86; Niles’ Weekly Register 20, p. 388. John Quincy Adams’ observation of the threat to the Union in the Missouri debates is in Adams, op. cit., 4:260, 502, 528, and Thomas Jefferson’s is in Paul L. Ford, ed., Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1892–1899), 10:156–58, and Philip S. Foner, ed., Basic Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1950), pp. 767–68. Accounts of the petitions to Congress and meetings in opposition to slavery in Missouri and the entrance of Missouri into the Union as a slave state are in the Philanthropist, January 1, 1820.

For the anger of the South over the Missouri settlement, see Richard H. Brown, “The Missouri Crisis, Slavery and the Politics of Jacksonianism,” South Atlantic Quarterly 65 (Winter 1966): 80–98. The reaction of the abolitionists may be found in Samuel Eddy to Moses Brown, April 4, 1820, Moses Brown to Nathaniel Hazard, April 12, 1820, Moses Brown Papers, XIV, #3940–3941, Rhode Island Historical Society, and Miller, op. cit., pp. 98–99.

The Closed Southern Mind

For the influence of the Vesey conspiracy, see William W. Freehling, Prelude to Civil War: the Nullification Controversy in South Carolina, 1816–1836 (New York, 1966), pp. 53–61. George Logan’s observation is in George Logan, Autograph Letter Signed to Caesar A. Rodney (Charleston, S.C., 1822). The minutes of the 1828 American Convention of delegates from abolition societies are published in Freedom’s Journal, February 15, 22, 1828. For the proposal of the Ohio General Assembly of 1824, see Richard F. O’Dell, “The Early Antislavery Movement in Ohio”(Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1948), pp. 290–94, 298–305. For Benjamin Lundy’s antislavery role, see Merton L. Dillon, Benjamin Lundy and the Struggle for Negro Freedom (Urbana, Ill., 1966), pp. 32–85.

Nullification and the Slavery Issue and Decline of Abolition Societies

For the discussion of the relationship between the nullification controversy and the slavery issue, see Freehling, op. cit., and Major L. Wilson, “A Preview of Irrepressible Conflict: The Issue of Slavery during the Nullification Controversy,” Mississippi 9 (Fall 1966): 12–29. For criticism of the Freehling thesis, see Eugene D. Genovese, The World the Slaveholders Made (New York, 1969), p. 134; Paul H. Bergeron, “The Nullification Controversy Revisited,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly 35 (Fall 1976): 263–75. For support of the Freehling thesis, see James M. Benner, Jr., “The problem of South Carolina,” in Stanley M. Elkins and Eric McKitrick, eds., The Hofstadter Aegis: A Memorial (New York, 1974), p. 67. In his article, “Paranoia and American History,” New York Review of Books, September 23, 1971, p. 36n., Freehling indicated he may have gone too far in his discussion of paranoid feelings in South Carolina over slavery. For John Randolph’s statement, see his letter to Andrew Jackson, March 18, 1832, in John Spencer Bassett, ed., Correspondence of Andrew Jackson (Washington, D.C., 1931), 4:421–22. Other Southern statements of a similar nature may be found in William Sumner Jenkins, Pro-Slavery Thought in the Old South (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1935), pp. 76–77.

David Walker’s Revolutionary Appeal

For Garrison’s Fourth of July 1829 speech, see W. P. and F. J. Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison: The Story of His Life as Told by His Children (New York, 1885–1889), 1:134–35. The best study of David Walker is Donald M. Jacobs, “David Walker, Boston Race Leader, 1825–1830,” Essex Institute Historical Collections 107 (January 1971). An earlier study is George Forbes, “David Walker,” unpublished ms., Boston Public Library. The various editions of Walker’s Appeal may be conveniently found in Herbert Aptheker, ed., “One Continuous Cry,” David Walker’s Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, 1829–1830), Its Setting and Its Meaning (New York, 1965); Charles M. Wiltse, ed., David Walker’s Appeal in Four Articles: Together with a Preamble to the Coloured Citizens of the World, But in Particular, and Very Expressly, to Those of the United States of America (New York, 1965), and the reprint of the 1848 edition published by Henry Highland Garnet (New York, 1969), which also includes Garnet’s 1843 Address to the Slaves of the United States of America. Extracts of Walker’s Appeal appear in Aptheker’s Documentary History, 1:93–97, and in Benjamin Brawley’s Early American Negro Writers (Chapel Hill, 1935), pp. 125–46. Walker’s speech before the Massachusetts General Colored Association is in Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black America: Major Speeches by Blacks in the United States, 1797–1973 (New York, 1975), 1:51–56. For the reaction in the South to the Appeal, see Clement Eaton, “A Dangerous Pamphlet in the Old South,” Journal of Southern History 2 (Winter 1936): 180–96, and William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, “Walker’s Appeal Comes to Charleston: A Note and Documents,” Journal of Negro History 59 (July 1974): 287–92. Pease and Pease tell the story of the arrest and imprisonment of Edward Smith. The Boston Daily Courier’s, note to its readers doubting the ability of Walker to be the author of the pamphlet is in the issue of March 22, 1830. For relations between Lundy and Garrison, see Dillon, op. cit., pp. 126–80, and Walter M. Merrill, Against Wind and Tide: A Biography of Wm. Lloyd Garrison (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), pp. 50–61. Garrison’s reaction to Walker’s pamphlet in the Genius of Universal Emancipation is in Forbes, op. cit., p. 6. For Walker’s death, see Forbes, op. cit., p. 8. For the theory that Walker’s Appeal was written for Northern abolitionists rather than for Southern slaves, see Peter Buckingham, “David Walker: An Appeal to Whom?” Negro History Bulletin 42 (January, February, March 1979): 24–26.

Walker and Garrison

The best study of Garrison’s stay of less than one year in Baltimore is David K. Sullivan, “William Lloyd Garrison in Baltimore, 1829–1830,” Maryland HistoricalMagazine 56 (Spring 1973): 64–79. See also Dillon, op. cit., pp. 131–46; John L. Thomas, The Liberator: William Lloyd Garrison (Boston, 1963), pp. 74–81, 89–101; Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison: I Will Be Heard, 1822–1835 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), pp. 1–93.

17. THE PROSLAVERY ARGUMENT

George M. Fredrickson’s point is made in his The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817–1914 (New York, 1971), pp. 43–45. For the proslavery argument in the 1790s, see Philip S. Foner, History of Black Americans: From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom (Westport, Conn., 1975), pp. 406–20. Stampp’s argument is in Kenneth M. Stampp, “An Analysis of T. R. Drew’s Review of the Debates in the Virginia Legislature,” Journal of Negro History 27 (October 1942): 380–86. For Governor McDuffie’s defense of slavery in his message to the South Carolina legislature of 1835, see William W. Freehling, Prelude to Civil War: The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina, 1816–1836 (New York, 1965), pp. 144–48, 192–96, 340–46; Edwin L. Green, George McDuffie (Columbia, S.C., 1936), pp. 146–55; William S. Jenkins, Pro-Slavery Thought in the Old South (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1935), pp. 285–95.

An interesting view of the controversy over the proslavery argument is presented in John David Smith, “A Different View of Slavery: Black Historians Attack the Proslavery Argument, 1890–1920,” Journal of Negro History 65 (Fall 1980): 298–311. A valuable discussion of the proslavery argument may be found in Drew Gilpin Faust, ed., The Ideology of Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Antebellum South, 1830–1860 (Baton Rouge, La., 1980).

A School for “Barbarians”

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Jenkins, op. cit., pp. 62–84, 285–308; Thomas R. Drew, Review of the Debate in the Virginia Legislature of 1831 and 1832 (Richmond, Va., 1932), pp. 12–15, 43–46, 64–68. William J. Grayson, The Hireling and the Slave, Cherocra and Other Poems (Charleston, S.C., 1856). Grayson’s poem runs to 1,576 lines, of which about a quarter are reprinted in Eric L. McKitrick, ed., Slavery Defended: The Views of the Old South (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963), pp. 57–68. See also Thomas D. Jarrett, “The Literary Significance of William J. Grayson’s The Hireling and the Slave,” Georgia Review 5 (Winter 1951): 487–94; Edmund Wilson, Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the Civil War (New York, 1962), pp. 336–64; Arthur Y. Lloyd, The Slavery Controversy, 1831–1860 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1939), pp. 139–45.

The Pseudoscientific Argument

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Chancellor Harper, Governor Hammond, Dr. Simms, and Professor Drew, The Pro-Slavery Argument (Charleston, S.C., 1852), pp. 40–71; Alexander H. Stephens, African Slavery: The Cornerstone of the Southern Confederacy (Savannah, Ga., 1861), pp. 14–32; Jenkins, op. cit., pp. 112–41; F. A. Ross, Slavery Ordained of God (Philadelphia, 1857), pp. 6–22; J. Priest, Bible Defense of Slavery (Glasgow, Ky., 1852), pp. 34–45.

Chattel Slavery and Wage Slavery

The most recent analysis of this issue is Marcus Cunliffe, Chattel Slavery and Wage Slavery: The Anglo-American Contest, 1830–1860 (Athens, Ga., 1970). For an older discussion, see Wilfred Carsel, “The Slaveholders’ Indictment of Northern Wage Slavery,” Journal of Southern History 6 (November 1940): 504–20. For the views of George Fitzhugh, see Cannibals All! or Slaves Without Masters, ed. with an introduction by C. Vann Woodward (Cambridge, Mass., 1960); George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South (Richmond, Va., 1854). Selections from Fitzhugh may be found in Harvey Wish, ed., Ante-Bellum (New York, 1960). Wish is also the author of George Fitzhugh, Propagandist of the Old South (Baton Rouge, La., 1943). An appreciative analysis of Fitzhugh is in Eugene D. Genovese, The World the Slaveholders Made (New York, 1969), which takes issue with Wish. See also Fredrickson, op. cit., pp. 59–70. Finally, see George Fitzhugh, “The Conservative Principle; or, Social Evils and Their Remedies,” DeBow’s Review 22 (April 1857): 249–65. John C. Calhoun’s speech is published in John C. Calhoun, Speech on the Slavery Question (Washington, D.C., 1850).

Northern Echoes

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: William Gouge, A Short History of Paper Money and Banking in the United States (Philadelphia, 1833), pt. 1: 98–99; Boston Quarterly Review 1 (April 1838): 260, Cunliffe, op. cit., pp. 32–48; Robert Spiller, “Fenimore Cooper’s Defense of Slave-Owning America,” American Historical Review 35 (April 1930): 580; James K. Paulding, Slavery in the United States (New York, 1836), pp. 177–78; Seth Luther, An Address to the Working-Men of New England on the State of Education, and on the Condition of the Producing Classes in Europe and America (Boston, 1832), p. 37; Working Man’s Advocate, June 22, 1844; Philip S. Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States (New York, 1947), 1:272–75; Eugene H. Beridinger, “Negrophobia in Northern Proslavery and Antislavery Thought,” Phylon 13 (Fall 1972): 266–85; Gerald S. Henig, “The Jacksonian Attitude toward Abolitionism in the 1830’s,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly 24 (Spring 1969): 51–53; William Stanton, The Leopard’s Spots, Scientific Attitude toward Race in America, 1815–1859 (Chicago, 1960), pp. 33–41; Calvin Colton, Abolition a Sedition, by a Northern Man (Philadelphia, 1839), pp. 127, 189; Alfred A. Cave, “The Case of Calvin Colton,” New-York Historical Society Quarterly (July 1969): 215–28; Ronald T. Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in Nineteenth Century America (New York, 1979).

18. AMERICAN HISTORIANS AND THE ABOLITIONISTS

Traditional Interpretation of Abolitionists

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: T. Harry Williams, Lincoln and the Radicals (Baton Rouge, La., 1961), passim; Samuel Eliot Morison and Henry Steele Commager, The Growth of the American Republic, 4th ed. (New York, 1950), pp. 216–18; Arnold Whitridge, No Compromise! The Story of the Fanatics Who Paved the Way to the Civil War (New York, 1960), passim; Avery Craven, The Coming of the Civil War (Chicago, 1942), pp. 134–50; David Donald, “Toward a Reconsideration of Abolitionists,” in his Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays in the Civil War (New York, 1956), pp. 33–38; Hazel C. Wolf, On Freedom’s Altar, The Martyr Complex in theAbolitionist Movement (Madison, Wis., 1952), pp. 8–16. William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, “Antislavery Ambivalence: Immediatism, Expediency, Race,” American Quarterly 17 (Winter 1965): 693; Stanley M. Elkins, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (Chicago, 1959), pp. 193–206.

For a useful synthesis of the scholarship on abolitionists, see James Brewer Stewart, Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery (New York, 1976).

The Traditional View of William Lloyd Garrison

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Allan Nevins, Ordeal of the Union (New York, 1964), pp. 132–34; Dwight L. Dumond, Antislavery: The Crusade for Freedom in America (New York, 1961), p. 174; Gilbert Hobbs Barnes, The Antislavery Impulse, 1830–1844 (New York, 1933), pp. 51, 192–94; Wendell Phillips, Speeches, Lectures, and Letters, 1st ser. (Boston, 1863), p. 152; Merton L. Dillon, “The Abolitionist: A Decade of Historiography, 1959–1969,” Journal of Southern History 35 (1969): 504–5; Walter M. Merrill, Against Wind and Tide: A Biography of William Lloyd Garrison (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), pp. 14–23, 117–50; John L. Thomas, The Liberator: William Lloyd Garrison (Boston, 1963), pp. 12–15, 162–78. David Donald, Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War (New York, 1960); Dwight L. Dumond, Antislavery Origins of the Civil War (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1959), p. 87; Leon F. Litwack, North of Slavery: The North in the Free States, 1790–1860 (Chicago, 1961), pp. 243–44.

A New Look at the Abolitionists

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Benjamin P. Thomas, Theodore D. Weld: Crusader for Freedom (New Brunswick, N.J., 1950), pp. 4–5; Louis Filler, The Crusade against Slavery: 1830–1860 (New York, 1960), pp. 32–48; Louis Ruchames, “The Historian as Special Pleader,” Nation, November 24, 1962, pp. 352–56; Louis Ruchames, The Abolitionists: A Collection of Their Writings (New York, 1963), pp. 15–18; Martin Duberman, ed., The Antislavery Vanguard: New Essays on the Abolitionists (Princeton, N.J., 1965), passim.

An effort, not entirely successful, to update the Duberman volume of essays by various scholars is Lewis Perry and Michael Fellman, eds., Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Abolitionists (Baton Rouge, La., 1979). A more important recent work, unfortunately mainly unpublished, is Ronald Gordon Walters, “The Antislavery Appeal: American Abolitionism after 1831” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1971). The part published is Ronald G. Walters, The Antislavery Appeal: American Abolitionism After 1830 (Baltimore, 1976). See also for the discussion in this section, Bertram Wyatt-Brown, “Abolitionism: Its Meaning for Contemporary Reform,” Midwest Quarterly 8 (October 1966): 41–55; Betty Fladeland, “Who Were the Abolitionists?” Journal of Negro History 49 (April 1964): 99–115; Martin Duberman, “The Abolitionists and Psychology,” Journal of Negro History 47 (July 1962): 183–91, and in Hugh Hawkins, ed., The Abolitionists, Means, Ends, and Motivation (Lexington, Mass., 1942), pp. 142–50; Dillon, op. cit., p. 502; Bertram Wyatt-Brown, “New Leftists and Abolitionists: A Comparison of American Radical Types,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 53 (1970): 256–58.

The New View of Garrison

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: William Lloyd Garrison: I Will Be Heard, Letters, Vol. 1:1822–1835, edited by Walter M. Merrill; WilliamLloyd Garrison: A House Divided Against Itself, 1836–1840 Letters, Vol. 2, 1836–1840, edited by Louis Ruchames; William Lloyd Garrison: No Union with Slave-Holders, Letters, Vol. 3: 1841–1849, edited by Walter M. Merrill (Cambridge, Mass., 1971, 1974); Truman Nelson, ed., Documents of Upheaval (New York, 1964), pp. 12–13; Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan and the Evangelist War against Slavery (Cleveland, 1969), pp. 19–23; Bertram Wyatt-Brown, “William Lloyd Garrison and Antislavery Unity: A Reappraisal,” Civil War History 13 (March 1967): 5–24; James B. Stewart, “The Aims and Impact of Garrisonian Abolitionism, 1840–1860,” Civil War History 15 (September 1969): 203; David A. Williams, “William Lloyd Garrison, the Historians, and the Abolitionist Movement,” Essex Institute, Historical Collections 98 (April 1962): 84–99; Aileen S. Kraditor, Means and Ends in American Abolitionism: Garrison and His Critics on Strategy and Tactics, 1834–1850 (New York, 1969), pp. 76–108; Aileen S. Kraditor, “The Abolitionists Rehabilitated,” Review of James M. McPherson, The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and the Negro in the Civil War and Reconstruction, in Studies on the Left 5 (1965): 99–102; Aileen S. Kraditor, “A Note on Elkins and the Abolitionists,” Civil War History 13 (December 1967): 102–12; Barrington Moore Jr., Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (Boston, 1966), chap. 3.

A Revolutionary Movement

See Herbert Aptheker, “The Abolitionist Movement,” Political Affairs (February 1976): 29–33. See also Margaret Shortreed, “The Antislavery Radicals: From Crusade to Revolution, 1840–1868,” Past and Present 16 (November 1959): 65–87.

Blacks and the Antislavery Movement

For criticism of the abolitionists for their racism and refusal to battle discrimination, see Merton L. Dillon, “The Failure of the American Abolitionists,” Journal of Southern History 35 (May 1959): 159–77; Leon F. Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790–1860 (Chicago 1961), pp. 214–30; Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, Bound with Them in Chains: A Biographical History of the Antislavery Movement (Westport, Conn., 1972), pp. 162–90; Pease and Pease, “Ends, Means and Attitudes: Black-White Conflict in the Antislavery Movement,” Civil War History 18 (1972): 117–28; Pease and Pease, “Antislavery Ambivalence,” pp. 682–95. For Quarles’ view, see Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), p. 132. McPherson’s analysis is in James M. McPherson, “A Brief for Equality: The Abolitionist Reply to the Racist Myth, 1860–1865,” in Duberman, Antislavery Vanguard, pp. 156–77; the quotation from Aptheker is from his review in Masses and Mainstream (May 1951): 87; W.E.B. Du Bois, John Brown (New York, 1962), pp. 5, 7, 42; W.E.B. Du Bois, “The Liberator,” Crisis 39 (February 1931): 69.

19. THE LIBERATOR AND THE AMERICAN ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY

Launching the Liberator

For Garrison’s plans to start a paper in Washington and the decision to launch the Liberator in Boston, see Garrison to George Sheperd, September 13, 1830; Garrison to Ebenezer Dale, July 14, 1830; Garrison to Ephraim Allen, September 30, 1830, in Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison: I Will Be Heard, 1822–1835 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), pp. 104, 109–11. For the contributions and comments of James Forten, see Forten to William Lloyd Garrison, December 31, 1830, February 2, 1831, Anti-Slavery Letters Addressed to William Lloyd Garrison, Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room; William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879, The Story of His Life Told by His Children (New York, 1885–1889), 1:433. On the Support of Boston blacks, see Liberator, August 20, September 3, 1831, and Donald M. Jacobs, “William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator and Boston Blacks, 1830–1865,” New England Quarterly 26 (Spring 1971): 259–61. For the importance of black subscribers and the view that the Liberator was the organ of blacks, see Liberator, December 10, 1831, December 29, 1865; John L. Thomas, The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison (Boston, 1963), p. 31.

Revivalism

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Gilbert Hobbs Barnes, The Anti-Slavery Impulse, 1830–1844 (New York, 1933), pp. 15–38; John C. Hammond, “Revival Religion and Antislavery Politics,” American Sociological Review 39 (April 1974): 175–86; Donald G. Mathews, Slavery and Methodism: A Chapter in American Morality, 1780–1845 (Princeton, N.J., 1965), pp. 86–105; William G. McLaughlin Jr., Modern Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney to Billy Graham (New York, 1959), p. 115; Andrew G. Murray, Presbyterians and the Negro—A History (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 94–110; William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, eds., The Anti-Slavery Movement (New York, 1967), pp. 72–80; Robert H. Abuzy, “The Influence of Garrisonian Abolitionists’ Fears of Slave Violence on the Antislavery Argument, 1829–40,” Journal of Negro History 55 (January 1970): 16–17. For Finney’s backwardness on the issue of equal rights for blacks, see Garth Mervin Russell, “Charles G. Finney and the Rise of the Benevolence Empire” (Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1971), pp. 175–78.

The “Lane Rebels”

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan and the Evangelical War against Slavery (Cleveland, 1969), pp. 32–54, 74–81; Robert Samuel Fletcher, A History of Oberlin College (Oberlin, Ohio, 1943), pp. 34–35, 153, 162, 168, 170–71; Benjamin P. Thomas, Theodore D. Weld: Crusader for Freedom (New Brunswick, N.J., 1950), pp. 18–26, 48, 73–93; Barnes, op. cit., pp. 38–40, 55–58; Gilbert H. Barnes and Dwight L. Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld, and Sarah Grimké 1822–1844 (New York, 1934), 1:32–36, 48–51, 63–67 (hereafter cited as Weld-Grimké Letters). The most recent study of the Lane rebels, which, however, does not add much new to what is already known, is Lawrence Thomas Lesick, The Lane Rebels: Evangelicalism and Antislavery in Antebellum America (Metuchen, N.J., 1980).

New England Anti-Slavery Society

For the British antislavery movement and its influence in the United States, see Barnes, op. cit., 29–37; Annie H. Abel and Frank J. Klineberg, A Side-Light on Anglo-American Relations, 1839–1858 (Lancaster, Pa., 1927), pp. 11–15. On the formation of the New England Anti-Slavery Society, see Liberator, February 2, 1833; John Daniels, In Freedom’s Birthplace: A Study of the Boston Negroes (Boston, 1914), p. 47; George W. Williams, History of the Negro Race from 1619 to 1880 (New York, 1883), 2:78–79; Donald M. Jacobs, “A History of the Boston Negro from Revolution to Civil War” (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1968), p. 107.

Formation of the American Anti-Slavery Society

For Garrison’s trip to England, see Liberator, March 23, April 3, May 11, 1833. There are several versions of the speech by the unknown Negro in New York City. The one reproduced here is from Lewis Tappan, Life of Arthur Tappan (New York, 1885), p. 7, and reprinted in Herbert Aptheker, “The Negro in the Abolitionist Movement,” Science and Society 12 (Spring 1952): 168–69. For other versions, see Henry Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (New York, 1872), 1:231–32; Clarence Winthrop Brown, Arthur and Lewis Tappan (New York, 1883), pp. 5–7; New York Evangelist, October 5, 1833. For the conflict over immediate emancipation between Garrison and the New York abolitionists, see Abel and Klineberg, op. cit., pp. 11–12, 420–43, and David Brion Davis, “The Emergence of Immediatism in British American Antislavery Thought,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 49 (September 1962): 209. The Declaration of Sentiment of the American Anti-Slavery Society and the proceedings of the founding convention are in Liberator, December 14, 1833; American Anti-Slavery Society, Declaration of the Anti-Slavery Convention. Assembled in Philadelphia, December 4, 1833 (Philadelphia, 1833); American Anti-Slavery Society, First Annual Report (New York, 1834), pp. 30–36. The formation of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society is discussed in Elaine Brooks, “Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society,” Journal of Negro History 30 (July 1945): 312.

Female Antislavery Societies

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Liberator, March 30, 1833, September 13, 1834, July 14, 1835, March 4, June 2, October 6, 1837; Philip S. Foner, ed., Frederick Douglass and Women’s Rights (Westport, Conn., 1976), pp. 3–4; Filler, op. cit., pp. 34–38, 129–36; Dwight L. Dumond, Anti-Slavery: The Crusade for Freedom in America (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1961), pp. 275–86; Charles H. Wesley, Richard Allen, Apostle of Freedom (Washington, D.C., 1935), pp. 239–40; Constitution and Minutes of the Society for the Encouragement of Free-Labour, Delaware Historical Society, Wilmington; North Star, December 8, 1848, March 20, 1851; National Anti-Slavery Standard, March 3, 1860; Norman B. Wilkinson, “The Philadelphia Free Produce Attack upon Slavery,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 56 (July 1947): 294–313; New York Commercial Advertiser, May 17, 1837.

Antislavery Agents

Elizur Wright’s letter to Weld is in Weld-Grimké Letters, 1:121; for the work of the various agents, see Benjamin P. Thomas, Theodore Weld, Crusader for Freedom (New Brunswick, N.J., 1950), pp. 100–21; Dumond, Anti-Slavery, pp. 183–89; John L. Myers, “The Beginning of Anti-Slavery Agencies in New York State, 1833–1836,” New York History 42 (April 1962): 149–81, “Anti-Slavery Activities of Five Lane Seminary Boys in 1835–1836,” Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio Bulletin 21 (September 1963): 128–49, and “The Beginning of Antislavery Agencies in New Hampshire, 1832–1835,” Historical New Hampshire 25 (Fall 1970): 120–45; Liberty Bell, 1842, pp. 64–66; Fourteenth Annual Report of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 1846, p. 48; Elizur Wright to James G. Birney, July 16, 1836, in Dwight L. Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney (New York, 1938), l:334;Ira V. Brown, “An Antislavery Agent: C. C. Burleigh in Pennsylvania, 1836–1837,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 105 (January 1981): 66–84.

“The Seventy”

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Maria W. Stewart, Productions of Mary W. Stewart (Boston, 1835); Liberator, March 17, 1832; Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black America: Major Speeches by Blacks in the United States, 1797–1973 (New York, 1975), 1:63–70; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Weld-Grimké Letters, 2:564; Gerda Lerner, The Grimké Sisters of South Carolina: Pioneers for Women’s Rights and Abolition (New York, 1968), pp. 120–35; John L. Myers, “The Organization of ‘the Seventy,’: To Arouse the North against Slavery,” Mid-America 48 (January 1966): 29–46; Janet Wilson, “The Travelling Agents Convert the Countryside,” More Books 12 (January, 1968): 123–40; John L. Myers, “American Antislavery Society Agents and the Free Negro, 1833–1838,” Journal of Negro History 52 (July 1967): 200–219; Herbert Aptheker, The Negro in the Abolitionist Movement (New York, 1944), p. 169.

Antislavery Pamphlets and Tracts

For Weld’s work as an editor, see Janet Wilson, “The Early Antislavery Propaganda,” More Books 12 (March 1968): 357–59; Weld-Grimké Letters, 1:479–80, 505; 2:526, 621, 717. For Dickens’ use of American Slavery As It Is, see Louise H. Johnson, “The Source of the Chapter on Slavery in Dickens’ American Notes,” American Literature 14 (January 1943): 427–30. For a brief sketch of Lydia Maria Child, see Dictionary of American Biography, 4:67–69. The discussion of her Appeal is based on: Lydia M. Child, An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans (New York, 1836), pp. 7–37, 81, 101, 105–22, 148; Lydia M. Child, Letters, with an introduction by John G. Whittier and an appendix by Wendell Phillips (Boston, 1883), pp. 41, 194–95; J. W. Chadwick, A Life for Liberty, Anti-Slavery and Other Letters of Sally Holley (New York, 1899), p. 175; Hilda Marie Sampey, “Lydia Maria Child and the Female Anti-Slavery Movement” (master’s thesis, New York University, 1946), pp. 24–27. For the quotation from Slavery and the North, see Charles C. Burleigh, “Slavery and the North,” Anti-Slavery Tracts, No. 10:9–10.

Antislavery Fairs

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Liberator, October 6, December 15, 1837, December 14, 1838, November 29, 1839, January 1, 1841, January 12, 1855, January 30, 1857; National Anti-Slavery Standard, September 21, 1843, November 11, 1851, September 2, 1854; Weld-Grimké Letters, 2:541. For a detailed study of Abolitionist finances, see Benjamin Quarles, “Sources of Abolitionist Income,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 32 (June 1945): 63–76. The development of the American Anti-Slavery Society may be followed in Dumond, Anti-Slavery, chap. 20; Filler, op. cit., pp. 66–67; and Janet Wilson, “The Network of Anti-Slavery Societies,” More Books (February 1945): 51–53.

20. CIVIL RIGHTS AND ANTISLAVERY

For Mary Parker’s letter, see Liberator, April 30, 1836. A discussion of the civil liberties issue and the antislavery movement is in Russell B. Nye, Fettered Freedom:Civil Liberties and the Slavery Controversy, 1830–1860 (East Lansing, Mich., 1949). For bitter denunciations of the abolitionists quoted, see James K. Paulding, Slavery in the United States (New York, 1836), pp. 302–3; speech of Ely Moore, Congressional Globe, 25th Cong., 3d sess., Appendix, p. 240. For a discussion of Moore, see Philip S. Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States (New York, 1947), 1:151–53, 268, 564. The comment of the New York Courier and Enquirer is in the issue of July 22, 1834; that of James Buchanan is in Lancaster Intelligencer, August 18, 1838, reprinted in Niles’ Weekly Register, October 6, 1838. For Leland’s comment, see Charles Godfrey Leland, Memoirs (London, 1893), 1:301. For the restrictions on civil liberties in the South, see Clement Eaton, The Freedom-of-Thought Struggle in the Old South (New York, 1964), pp. 162–95; Clement Eaton, “The Freedom of the Press in the Upper South,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 18 (March 1932): 479–99; William W. Freehling, Prelude to Civil War: The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina 1816 to 1836 (New York, 1965), pp. 255, 257, 259. The Georgia law against the Liberator is discussed in Walter M. Merrill, Against Wind and Tide: A Biography of William Lloyd Garrison (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), pp. 53–55. For the efforts to keep news of slave revolts and conspiracies quiet before the 1830s, see James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson, September 15, 1800, Stanislaus M. Hamilton, ed., The Writings of James Monroe (New York, 1898–1903), 3:201; Thomas W. Higginson, “Gabriel’s Defeat,” Atlantic Monthly 10 (September 1862): 337–45, which refers to Vesey. Garrison’s poem is in the Liberator, January 1, 1831. Thomas Sydenham Witherspoon’s letter to the Emancipator is reprinted in James G. Birney, The American Churches, the Bulwarks of American Slavery (London, 1840), pp. 42–43.

Causes of Antiabolitionist Violence

The observation of the Mississippi slaveowner is in Matthew Estes, A Defense of Negro Slavery As It Exists in the United States (Montgomery, Ala., 1946), pp. 230–31. For the connection between New York City and the South, see Philip S. Foner, Business and Slavery: New York Merchants and the Irrepressible Conflict (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1940), pp. 1–6; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Weld-Grimké Letters, 1:363; on Boston and Lowell, see Samuel Eliot Morison, The Maritime History of Massachusetts (Boston and New York, 1930), pp. 298–99. For the card of the New York merchants, see Foner, Business and Slavery, p. 14, and for the comment to May, see Samuel J. May, Some Recollections of Our Anti-Slavery Conflict (Boston, 1869), pp. 127–28. Hubbard’s, Moore’s, and Leggett’s remarks on the threat of emancipation to white workers in the North are in Congressional Globe, 24th Cong., 1st sess., Appendix, p. 5; 25th Cong., 3d sess., Appendix, p. 240; New York Evening Post, February 10, 1835. For Fisk, see Theophilus Fisk, The Banking Bubble Burst: Being a History of the Enormous Legalized Frauds Practiced upon the Community by the Present American Banking System (Charleston, S.C., 1837), pp. 184–85; Boston Courier, March 12, 1837; Lydia Maria Child, Letters (Boston, 1883), p. 18; William Goodell, Slavery and Anti-Slavery (New York, 1853), p. 407. For Ratner’s conclusion, see Norman Ratner, Powder-Keg: Northern Opposition to the Anti-Slavery Movement, 1831–1840 (New York, 1968), pp. 215–17; and for Henig’s, see Gerald S. Henig, “The Jacksonian Attitude toward Abolitionism, in the 1830’s,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly 16 (Spring 1969): 56. For the view of John B. Jentz, see his article “The Antislavery Constituency in Jacksonian New York City,” Civil War History 27 (June 1981): 104.

The “Mob Years”

Two accounts of antiabolitionist riots are Ratner, op. cit., which concentrates on fundamental factors behind hostility to abolitionists, and Leonard L. Richards, “Gentlemen of Property and Standing”: Anti-Abolition Mobs in Jacksonian America (New York, 1970), which presents an in-depth analysis of three particular riots in Utica, New York City, and Cincinnati. For the 1834 riot in New York City, see also New York Courier and Enquirer, July 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 22, 1834; New York Mercantile Advertiser, July 12, 14, 15, 18, 22, 24, 1834; Linda K. Kerber, “Abolitionists and Amalgamators: The New York City Riots of 1834,” New York History 48 (January 1967): 28–39. For the Utica riot, see also Benjamin Savitch, “The Well-Planned Riot of October 21, 1835: Utica’s Answer to Abolitionism,” New York History 50 (July 1969): 251–63; May, op. cit., p. 164; Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Gerrit Smith (New York, 1979), pp. 164–66. The events surrounding the visit of George Thompson to the United States are discussed, although with an antiabolitionist bias, in C. Duncan Rice, “The Anti-Slavery Mission of George Thompson to the United States, 1834–1835,” Journal of American Studies 2 (April 1968): 13–31; but see also Liberator, August 23, September 27, 1834, May 30, July 18, 25, August 8, October 10, 24, December 5, 1835; George Thompson to William Lloyd Garrison, September 24, December 6, 1834, Anti-Slavery Letters Addressed to Garrison, Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room; Wendell P. and Francis J. Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879 (New York, 1885–1889), 1:434–67. The Boston riot and the near-lynching of Garrison is discussed in Louis Filler, The Crusade against Slavery, 1830–1860 (New York, 1960), pp. 76–80; Russell B. Nye, William Lloyd Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers (Boston, 1955), pp. 96–98; Garrison and Garrison, op. cit., 1:434–51, 486–92. See also Liberator, April 18, May 23, October 24, November 23, December 19, 1835; Boston Commercial Gazette, October 1, 1835. For the attacks on Negroes in Boston, see Donald M. Jacobs, “A History of the Boston Negro from Revolution to Civil War” (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1968), pp. 132–33. Seward’s recollection is in Frederick W. Seward, ed., An Autobiography of William H. Seward from 1810 to 1834 with a Memoir of His Life and Selections from His Letters, 1831–1846 (New York, 1891), p. 291. The attack on abolitionist mailings is discussed in Nye, Fettered Freedom, pp. 54–69; Freehling, op. cit., pp. 279–92; Clement Eaton, Freedom of Thought in the Old South (New York, 1964), pp. 200–205; William Thomas (“Defensor”), Enemies of the Constitution Discovered, or, an Inquiry into the Origin and Tendency of Popular Violence (New York, 1835), pp. 125–30; Clement Eaton, “Censorship of the Southern Mails,” American Historical Review 48 (January 1943): 260–78. For the incident involving Amos Dresser, see The Narrative of Amos Dresser (New York, 1836), pp. 3–15.

Freedom of the Press

The attack on the Philanthropist is discussed in Betty Fladeland, James Gillespie Birney: The Slaveholder to Abolitionist (New York, 1969), pp. 82–83, 125–60. The discussion of Elijah P. Lovejoy is based on the following sources: Melvin Johnson, Elijah Parish Lovejoy (Rochester, N. Y., 1910 [?]), pp. 38–68; John Gill, Tide without Turning: Elijah P. Lovejoy and Freedom of the Press (Boston, n.d.), pp. 51–56, 62; Edward Beecher, Narrative of Riots at Alton, introduction by Robert Meredith (Alton, Ill., 1838; reprint ed., New York, 1965); Merton L. Dillon, Elijah P. Lovejoy, Abolitionist Editor (Urbana, Ill., 1961), pp. 40–86; Liberator, November 24, December 1, 1837, January 5, February 16, 1838. For the editorial of the Colored American and the reports of Negro meetings, see Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), 1:174–75. Aptheker publishes the resolutions adopted at the New York Negro meeting in honor of Lovejoy. For the debate over Lovejoy’s resort to the use of guns to defend himself, see Carleton Mabee, Black Freedom: The Nonviolent Abolitionists from 1830 through the Civil War (New York, 1970), pp. 38–50.

Freedom of Assembly

For Wendell Phillips’ comment on the threat to blacks for permitting abolitionists to use their churches and halls, see Carol Martyn, Wendell Phillips (New York, 1890), p. 303. The discussion of Pennsylvania Hall is based on the following sources: Pennsylvania Hall Association, History of Pennsylvania Hall Which Was Destroyed by A Mob on the 17th of May 1838 (Philadelphia, 1838); Minutes, Board of Managers, Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society and Minute Book of the Pennsylvania Hall Association, both in Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Ms. Diary of General August J. Pleasanton, 1838–1844 (May 17, 1838), ibid.; William N. Needles to Wendell P. Garrison, Germantown, June 23, 1885, Abolition Society Papers, ibid.; Samuel G. Packard, The Life and Letters of John Greenleaf Whittier (Boston and New York, 1894), 1:233–34; Weld-Grimké Letters, 1:275–76; 2:511–12, 651; Niles’ Weekly Register, February 3, May 26, 1838; Pennsylvania Freeman, May 12, 17, 24, October 25, November 25, 1838; Philadelphia Public Ledger, May 14, 20, 22, 24, 30, July 18, 1838; Merton L. Dillon, Benjamin Lundy and the Struggle for Negro Freedom (Urbana, Ill., 1969); Anna Davis Howell, ed., James and Lucretia Mott, Life and Letters (Boston, 1884), pp. 131–35. Two important studies of the burning of Pennsylvania Hall are William P. Lloyd, “Roots of Fear: A History of Pennsylvania Hall” (master’s thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1963), and Ira V. Brown, “Racism and Sexism: The Case of Pennsylvania Hall,” Phylon 37 (June 1976): 126–35.

Freedom of Petition

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Nye, Fettered Freedom, pp. 32–54; Barnes, Anti-Slavery Impulse, pp. 100–145; Merton L. Dillon, The Abolitionists: The Growth of a Dissenting Minority (DeKalb, Ill., 1974), pp. 100–106; Samuel Flagg Bemis, John Quincy Adams and the Union (New York, 1956), pp. 326–83; Congressional Globe, 24th Cong., 1st sess., Appendix, pp. 225–26; Samuel J. Kline, “The Old Man Eloquent,” American Historical Magazine 21 (1927): 479–97; Oscar Sherwin, “Old Man Eloquent,” Phylon 5 (1944); Frederick Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom (New York, 1855), pp. 164–65; Pennsylvania Freeman, October 20, 1841; B. C. Clark, John Quincy Adams (Boston, 1932), p. 368.

Civil Liberties and Antislavery Growth

Frederick Douglass’ speech appeared in Renfrewshire Advertiser, April 11, 1846. For the comment of the Boston Commercial Gazette, see New York Courier and Enquirer of July 18, 1834 which reprints it, and also Kerber, op. cit., pp. 37–38, For the number of antislavery riots, see Theodore D. Weld, In Memory: Angelina Grimké Weld (Boston, 1880), p. 2. William Ellery Channing’s comments are in W. E. Channing to Jonathan Phillips, July 24, 1834, see Weld to James G. Birney, August 7, 1834, in Dwight L. Dumond, ed., Letters of James G. Birney, 1831–1857 (New York, 1938), 1:128. The comment of the head of the Pennsylvania militia is in diary of Colonel Pleasanton, May 20, June 23, 1838, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. On William Jay, see Bayard Tuckerman, William Jay and the Constitutional Movement for the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1894), p. 56. For Lewis Tappan and Schuyler Colfax, see Weld-Grimké Letters, 1:153; Lewis Tappan, The Life of Arthur Tappan (New York, 1870), p. 420. On the Philanthropist and Lovejoy’s comment and the effect of Lovejoy’s death on Bryant, see Fladeland, op. cit., p. 146; Dillon, op. cit., pp 178, 192. Southern comments on the burning of Pennsylvania Hall are reprinted in Pennsylvania Freeman, May 31, June 21, 1838. See also Lloyd, op. cit., pp. 66–67 and Brown, op. cit., p. 15. The reaction of labor to the civil liberties issue is discussed in Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States, 1:267. See also National Laborer, March 26, 1836. For Williams’ resignation from the Anti-Slavery Society, see George Walker, “The Afro-American in New York City Before the Civil War, 1827–1860” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1972), pp. 220–21. For Ward, see Samuel R. Ward, Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro (New York, 1872), p. 46. The conservative reaction of the Society of Friends to the burning of Pennsylvania Hall is discussed in Thomas E. Drake, Quakers and Slavery in America (New Haven, Conn., 1950), pp. 156–57. See also An Address to the Quarterly, Monthly and Preparative Meetings, and the Members thereof, Composing the Yearly Meeting of Friends, Held in Philadelphia, by the Committee Appointed at the late Yearly Meeting to Have Charge of the Subject of Slavery (Philadelphia, 1839), p. 8. For Furness’ different reaction, see William Henry Furness, A Sermon Occasioned by the Destruction of Pennsylvania Hall (Philadelphia, 1838), p. 3; Lloyd, op. cit., pp. 68–69. For Gerrit Smith, see Liberator, February 6, 1836. For John Quincy Adams’ opposition to slavery, see John Quincy Adams, Autograph Letter Signed to E. P. Atlee, Washington, June 25, 1836, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Allan Nevins, ed., Diary of John Quincy Adams (New York, 1929), pp. 126–28, 138–48; Sherwin, op. cit., pp. 133–34. For the Amistad case, see U.S. v. Amistad in Richard Peters, Reports of Cases Argued and Adjudged in the Supreme Court of the United States, January Term, 1841 (Philadelphia, 1840), 15:519–98; Argument of John Quincy Adams, before the Supreme Court of the United States, in the case of the United States, Appellants, vs. Cinque, and others, Africans (New York, 1841); Edwin P. Hoyt, The Amistad Affair (London, 1970). For Wendell Phillips, see Louis Ruchames, “Wendell Phillips’ Lovejoy Address,” New England Quarterly 47 (March 1974): 108–17, and for Phillips’ earlier antislavery activity, see also Liberator, January 21, March 31, April 14, July 7, 14, August 4, 27, 1837. The “Prospectus” for 1836 appeared in the Liberator of December 19, 1835. Calvin Colton, A Voice from America to England (London, 1839), pp. 273–74.

21. THE SPLIT IN THE ANTISLAVERY MOVEMENT

Moral Suasion, Nonresistance, and Come-Outerism

For the charge against Garrison, see Massachusetts Abolition Society, The True History of the Late Division in the Anti-Slavery Societies (Boston, 1841), p. 6. The discussion of moral suasion and nonresistance is based on the following sources: Henry Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (Boston and New York, 1872), 1:405–12; Garrison to Henry E. Benson, August 29, 1831, Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison: I Will Be Heard, 1822–1835 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), p. 128. Oliver Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison (Boston, 1881), p. 314. FourthAnnual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society (Boston, 1839), p. 23; Wendell Phillips to the Liberator, December 2, 1841, in Liberator, December 31, 1841; E. N. Elliot, ed., Cotton Is King (Augusta, Ga., 1860), pp. 140–41; John Demos, “The Anti-Slavery Movement and the Problem of Violent Means,” New England Quarterly 27 (December 1964): 503.

Women’s Rights

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Barnes and Dumond, eds., Weld-Grimké Letters, 2:415, 424, 428, 441; Liberator, July 14, 1832, March 1, May 23, July 19, 1839; Gerda Lerner, The Grimké Sisters from South Carolina, Pioneers for Women’s Rights and Abolition (New York, 1971), pp. 116–82; Philip S. Foner, ed., Frederick Douglass and Women’s Rights (Westport, Conn., 1976), pp. 5–7; New York Commercial Advertiser, May 25, 1838; Liberator, October 24, 1835, September 15, 1837.

Political Action

Garrison’s views are set forth in William Lloyd Garrison, An Address to the Abolitionists of Massachusetts on the Subject of Political Action (n.p., n.d.), pp. 7, 15; Aileen Kraditor, Means and Ends in American Abolitionism: Garrison and His Critics on Strategy and Tactics, 1834–1850 (New York, 1969), pp. 16–19, 162–68. For the advice by Garrison to Boston blacks in the election of 1839, see Liberator, November 8, 1839; Donald M. Jacobs, “William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator and Boston’s Blacks, 1830–1865,” New England Quarterly 45 (June 1971): 265. For the controversy over an antislavery political party, see James B. Stewart, “The Aims and Impact of Garrisonian Abolitionism, 1840–1860,” Civil War History 15 (September 1969): 197–209; Bertram Wyatt-Brown, “The Abolitionists’ Postal Campaign of 1835,” Journal of Negro History 50 (October 1965): 227–38; James M. McPherson, “The Fight against the Gag Rule: Joshua Leavitt and Antislavery Insurgency in the Whig Party, 1835–1842,” Journal of Negro History 48 (July 1963): 77–75.

The Pastoral and Clerical Appeals

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Russell B. Nye, William Lloyd Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, pp. 109–16; Oliver Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison and His Times (Boston, 1880), pp. 258–70; Lerner, op. cit., pp. 163–294; Liberator, October 6, 20, 1837; Gilbert Hobbs Barnes, The Antislavery Impulse, 1830–1844 (New York, 1933), pp. 156–57; Jacobs, op. cit., pp. 158–59.

The First Split

For the discussion in this section, see Massachusetts Abolitionist reprinted in Liberator, March 8, 1839, and Liberator, May 23, June 21, July 19, 1839; Elaine Brooks, “The Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society,” Journal of Negro History 30 (July 1945): 320–31; The True History of the Late Division, pp. 10–45.

The Split in the American Anti-Slavery Society

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Liberator, August 23, 30, September 19, 1839, April 24, 1840; Wilson, op. cit., 1:415–20; W. P. and F. J. Garrison, Life of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:347; Staughton Lynd, “The Abolitionist Critique of the United States Constitution,” in Martin Duberman, ed., The Antislavery Vanguard: New Essays on the Abolitionists (Princeton, N.J., 1965), pp. 209–37; Barnes, op. cit., pp. 153–60; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Weld-Grimké Letters, 2:849.

World Anti-Slavery Convention

For the events at the convention, see Louis Filler, The Crusade against Slavery, 1830–1860 (New York, 1960), pp. 137–38; Walter M. Merrill, Against Wind and Tide: A Biography of William Lloyd Garrison (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), pp. 161–69; Miriam C. Usrey, “Charles Lenox Remond, Garrison’s Ebony Echo, World Anti-Slavery Convention, 1840,” Essex Institute Historical Collections 106 (April 1970): 112; Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), 1:196–98; Truman Nelson, ed., Documents of Upheaval (New York, 1966), p. 17. For Garrison’s comment on the results of the election of 1840, see Liberator, December 4, 1840.

Blacks and the Antislavery Split

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), 1:192–96; Liberator, April 3, 1840; Dwight L. Dumond, ed., Letters of James G. Birney (New York, 1938), 1:575–79; Joel Schor, Henry Highland Garnet: A Voice of Black Radicalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 1977), pp. 38, 44.

22. BLACK ABOLITIONISTS

For Wesley’s statement, see Charles H. Wesley, “The Negroes of New York in the Emancipation Movement,” Journal of Negro History 24 (April 1939): 66. Elizur Wright’s appears in First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society (New York, 1834), p. 45.

Black-White Joint Activity

James Forten’s role is discussed in Ray Allen Billington, “James Forten: Forgotten Abolitionist,” Negro History Bulletin 13 (1949): 36–45. The Harvardiana statement and the Liberator’s on The Liberty Bell are in Liberator, February 21, 1835. For a detailed account of antislavery gift books, see Ralph Thompson, American Literary Annuals and Gift Books (New York, 1936). Frederick Douglass’ “The Heroic Slave” is reprinted in Philip S. Foner, The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York, 1975), Vol. 5 (Supplementary Volume, 1844–1860), pp. 473–506. See Pennsylvania Freeman, November 9, 1836, November 30, 1837, January 17, 1839, and Liberator, June 20, 1835, for the joint activities of black and white women in female antislavery societies.

Independent Black Activity

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Herbert Aptheker, “The Negro in the Abolitionist Movement,” Science and Society 13 (Spring 1941): 153–58; Florence Ray, Life of Charles B. Ray (New York, 1872), pp. 128–29; Gerald Sorin, The New York Abolitionists (Westport, Conn., 1971), pp. 81–93; Dorothy B. Porter, “The Organized Educational Activities of Negro Literary Societies, 1826–1836,” Journal of Negro Education 5 (1936): 557–58; Pennsylvania Freeman, November 30, 1837, August 4, 1841.

Contributions of Ex-Slaves: The Narratives

For a general discussion, see Larry Gara, “The Professional Fugitive in the Abolition Movement,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 26 (Spring 1965): 196–204; Aptheker, op. cit., pp. 163–64. For Angelina Grimké’s comment, see Gilbert Barnes and Dwight L. Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld, and Sarah Grimké 1822–1844 (New York, 1934), 2:523. On Harriet Beecher Stowe and Josiah Henson, see Eileen Ward, “In Memory of ‘Uncle Tom,’ ” Dalhousie Review 20 (1940): 335–38. On sales of Douglass’ autobiographies, see Philip S. Foner, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1964), pp. 59–60; on the impact of Douglass’ autobiographies, see Ephraim Peabody, “Narratives of Fugitive Slaves,” Christian Examiner 47 (July 1849): 64.

Contributions of Ex-Slaves: The Speakers

For Collins’ comment, see John A. Collins to William Lloyd Garrison, January 18, 1842 in Liberator, January 21, 1842 and reprinted in Foner, Douglass, p. 46. For the fugitives who found lecturing very difficult, see John W. Blassingame, ed., Slave Testimony (Baton Rouge, La., 1977), p. 151; Liberator, June 4, 1841; Patrick C. Kennicott, “Negro Antislavery Speakers in America” (Ph.D. diss., Florida State University, 1967), pp. 171–201. For the effect of the fugitive slave speakers in overcoming proslavery arguments, see Gara, op. cit., pp. 200–202. On Douglass’ view on the importance of speaking, see North Star, November 23, 1849. For Lunsford Lane, see Lunsford Lane, The Narrative of Lunsford Lane (Boston, 1842), and William G. Hawkins, Lunsford Lane: Another Helper from North Carolina (Miami, Fla., 1969). For the importance of self-improvement societies in the development of ex-slave speakers, see Liberator, July 9, 1841; National Anti-Slavery Standard, December 23, 1841. For Garrison’s comment, see W. P. and T. J. Garrison, Life of William Lloyd Garrison (Boston, 1885–1889), 3:311. For the comments on Brown, Bibb, and Douglass as speakers, see Gara, op. cit., pp. 201–2. For comments on Anthony Burns, see National Anti-Slavery Standard, January 24, 1857; Liberator, August 13, 1858.

Frederick Douglass: Antislavery Agent

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 24–27, 45–52; Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Hartford, Conn., 1881), pp. 183–95; Frederick Douglass, “Reminiscences,” Cosmopolitan 7 (August 1889): 378–79; Liberator, July 9, August 20, September 3, 17, 24, October 15, 29, November 12, 19, December 3, 14, 1841, January 14, August 26, September 2, November 18, 1842; National Anti-Slavery Standard, August 26, December 23, 1841, October 25, 1847; Herald of Freedom (Concord, N.H.), November 12, 1841, June 3, 1842; Providence Journal, January 1, 1842; Frederic May Holland, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1891), pp. 68–69; Tenth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society (Boston, 1841), pp. 105–6; Eleventh Annual Report (Boston, 1843), pp. 45–46; John W. Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One (New Haven, Conn., 1979), 1:xxi–lii.

A new detailed study of Douglass’ early life as a slave is Dickson J. Preston, Young Frederick Douglass: The Maryland Years (Baltimore, 1980). While correcting some errors in Douglass’ own narratives of his life in slavery, the author finally concedes that most of the former slave’s perceptions were accurate. Frequently, moreover, the author contradicts himself, and his picture of the slaveholders of Maryland’s Eastern Shore under whom the young Douglass worked as a slave is overly romanticized.

Trials of Black Antislavery Agents

For Robert Purvis, see Joseph A. Borome, “Robert Purvis and His Early Challenge to American Racism,” Negro History Bulletin 30 (May 1967): 8–10; Pauline C. Johnson, “Robert Purvis,” Negro History Bulletin 5 (December 1941): 65–66; Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), pp. 24–25, 35–56; for Charles Lenox Remond, see James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians: Family Life and Community Struggle in the Antebellum North (New York and London, 1979), pp. 61–62; Quarles, op. cit., pp. 50, 56–58; for Nell, see Robert P. Smith, “William Cooper Nell: Crusading Black Abolitionist,” Journal of Negro History 55 (July 1970): 182–99. For the comment of the Buffalo Courier on Remond and Douglass, see Blassingame, op. cit., p. xxxviii. William Wells Brown’s experience is described in William E. Farrison, “William Wells Brown in Buffalo,” Journal of Negro History 39 (October 1854): 312–13. Remond’s letter to Phillips is in Liberator, April 18, 1845. For experiences of Douglass on the antislavery circuit, see Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 56–57; National Anti-Slavery Standard, August 19, 1847; Aaron M. Powell, Personal Reminiscences of the Anti-Slavery and Other Reforms and Reformers (New York, 1899), p. 71; William A. White to Garrison, September 22, 1843 in Liberator, October 13, 1843; Douglass to William A. White, July 30, 1846, Douglass Ms., Library of Congress, Manuscript Division.

Sojourner Truth

For Frances Ellen Watkins, see Quarles, op. cit., p. 178. For Sarah P. Remond, see Dorothy B. Parker, “Sarah Parker Remond, Abolitionist and Physician,” Journal of Negro History 20 (1935): 287–93; Ruth Bogen, “Sarah Parker Remond: Black Abolitionist from Salem,” Essex Institute Historical Collections (April 1974): 12–30, For Sojourner Truth, see Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, A Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (New York, 1853); Arthur H. Fauset, Sojourner Truth (Chapel Hill, N.C.), pp. 2–37.

Black Abolitionists and Women’s Rights

For Sojourner’s Truth’s speech at the 1851 convention, see Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black America: Major Speeches by Blacks in the United States 1798–1973 (New York, 1975), 1:122–24. The speech is published here without the dialect. For the Hortons’ comment, see Black Bostonians, 66. For McCrummell and the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society, see Lloyd C. Hare, Lucretia Mott (New York, 1937), p. 92, and Aptheker, op. cit., p. 166. Brown’s statement is in William Wells Brown, A Lecture Delivered Before the Female Anti-Slavery Society at Salem, at Lyceum Hall, Nov. 14, 1847 (Boston, 1847), p. 4. For the role of Frederick Douglass in the movement see Philip S. Foner, ed., Frederick Douglass on Women’s Rights (Westport, Conn., 1976), pp. 12–19; Benjamin Quarles, “Frederick Douglass and the Women’s Rights Movement,” Journal of Negro History 25 (1940): 35–39; Adelaide Elizabeth Dorn, “A History of the Anti-Slavery Movement in Rochester and Vicinity” (master’s thesis, University of Buffalo, 1949), p. 51; Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Joslyn Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage (New York, 1881), 1:70–71; Helen T. Shea, “The Woman’s Rights Movement in New York State, 1848–1854” (master’s thesis, Columbia University, 1940), p. 15; New York Herald, September 12, 1852.

Black Abolitionists Abroad

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Quarles, Black Abolitionists, pp. 129–39; Benjamin Quarles, “Ministers without Portfolio,” Journal of Negro History (January 1954): 27–42; Claire Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists (Edinburgh, 1974), pp. 230–341; Claire Taylor, “Notes on American Negro Reformers in Victorian Britain,” Bulletin of the British Association for American Studies n.s. 2 (March 1961): 40–51; Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 62–75; Blassingame, op. cit., pp. liii–lxi; Gerald Falkerson, “Exile as Emergence: Frederick Douglass in Great Britain, 1845–1847,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 60 (February 1974): 69–82; Philip S. Foner, “William P. Powell: Militant Champion of Black Seamen,” Essays in Afro-American History (Philadelphia, 1978), pp. 98–99; Ruth Bogin, “Sarah Parker Remond, Black Abolitionist from Salem,” Essex Institute Historical Collections 110 (April 1974): 131–38; “Miss Remond in London,” London Morning Star, July 22, 1859; National Anti-Slavery Standard, August 27, 1859; Blassingame, op. cit., pp. 398–400; William Wells Brown, Sketches of People and Places Abroad (Boston, 1855), p. 140.

For Davis on conservative trends in British antislavery, see especially David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution (Ithaca, N.Y., 1954), pp. 346–47, 350, 361–85, 450–54. For a different picture, see Patricia Hollis, “Anti-Slavery and British Working-Class Radicalism in the Years of Reform,” in Christine Bolt and Seymour Drescher, eds., Anti-Slavery, Religion and Reform (Hamden, Conn., 1980), pp. 294–315, and Seymour Drescher, “Cart Whip and Billy Roller: Antislavery and Reform Symbolism in Industrializing Britain,” Journal of Social History 15 (1981): 3–24.

23. BLACK ABOLITIONISTS AND THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD

For a discussion of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, see Philip S. Foner, History of Black Americans: From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom (Westport, Conn., 1975), pp. 473–75.

The Underground Railroad: Fact or Myth

The major books on the Underground Railroad are: William Still, The Underground Railroad (Philadelphia, 1872); William Still, Still’s Underground Railroad Records (Hartford, Conn., 1886); Wilbur H. Siebert, The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1898); R. C. Smedley, History of the Underground Railroad in Chester and in the Neighboring Counties of Pennsylvania (reprint ed., New York, 1968); Henrietta Buckmaster, Let My People Go (New York, 1941); William A. Breyfogle, Make Free: The Story of the Underground Railroad (Philadelphia and New York, 1958); Sidney Gallwey, Underground Railroad in Tompkins County (Ithaca, N.Y., 1936); Larry Gara, The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad (Lexington, Ky., 1961); Marion Gleason McDougall, Fugitive Slaves: 1619–1865 (New York, 1967). For examples of omission of all but a small number of black activists in their accounts, see Siebert, Breyfogle, and Smedley.

For the comment of Levi Coffin, see Reminiscences of Levi Coffin (Cincinnati, 1876), p. 106; and for Birney’s see James G. Birney to Lewis Tappan, February 27, 1837, in Dwight L. Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney (New York, 1938), 2:376. For information on some of the individuals mentioned as involved in the Underground Railroad, see Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), pp. 143–53; Still, Underground Railroad, pp. 735–40; Clarice A. Richardson, “The Anti-Slavery Activities of Negroes in Pennsylvania” (master’s thesis, Howard University, 1931), pp. 13–23.

The Underground Railroad: Routes, Stations, and Stationmasters

For the origin of the term Underground Railroad, see Linda McCabe McCurdy, “The Underground Railroad,” Historic Pennsylvania Leaflets, no. 29 (1969): 1. For the routes and stations, see Siebert, op. cit., pp. 120–21; Smedly, op. cit., pp. 31–35; Marianna Gibbons Brubaker, “The Underground Railroad,” Lancaster County Historical Society Papers 15 (1911): 95–98; Thomas Whitson, “The Early Abolitionists of Lancaster County,” Lancaster County Historical Society Papers 15 (1911): 69–85. Richard P. McCormick, “William Whipper: Moral Reformer,” Pennsylvania History 43 (January 1976): 39–40; John W. Heisy, “William Whipper,” August 31, 1968—The Underground Railroad file at the York Historical Society, York, Pennsylvania; Siebert, op. cit., pp. 738–39; Colonel Thomas W. Lloyd, History of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania (Indianapolis, 1929), pp. 128–32; John Gibson, History of York County (York, Pa., 1886), pp. 440–50; Tendal Mutunhu, “John W. Jones: Underground Railroad Station-Master,” Negro History Bulletin 22 (March 1972): 814–18; Ebner C. Wright, “Underground Railroad Activities in Elmira,” Chemung Historical Journal 20 (September 1974): 2422–26; Philip S. Foner, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1964), pp. 129–35, 398–99; Amy Post, “The Underground Railroad,” in William Peck, ed., Semicentennial History of Rochester (Rochester, N.Y., 1924), pp. 458–60; Douglass to Anna H. Richardson, July 2, 1860, in Still, Underground Railroad, p. 598; Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, pp. 329–30.

Underground Railroad Conductors: North

For William Wells Brown’s activities in the Underground Railroad, see Narrative of William W. Brown (Boston, 1847), pp. 109–10; William E. Farison, “William Wells Brown in Buffalo,” Journal of Negro History 39 (October 1954): 300–303; Josephine Brown, Biography of an American Bondsman (Boston, 1856), pp. 52–53. Farison doubts the authenticity of the story of the painting of the fugitive with white paint.

Underground Railroad Conductors: South–Whites

For the experiences of Calvin Fairbank, see Calvin Fairbank, How the Way Was Prepared (Chicago, 1890), pp. 46–93; Siebert, op. cit., pp. 117–19; Stanley J. and Anita W. Robboy, “Lewis Hayden: From Fugitive Slave to Statesman,” New England Quarterly 46 (December 1933): 595–96; J. W. Coleman, Jr., Slavery Times in Kentucky (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1940); 80–88; Voice of Fugitive, January 15, 1852. For Jonathan Walker’s experiences, see Jonathan Walker, Trial and Imprisonment of Jonathan Walker (Boston, 1845); Renfewshire Advertiser, April 25, 1846, reprinted in John W. Blassingame, The Frederick Douglass Papers (1841–1846) (New Haven, Conn., 1979), 1:226. For the story of John L. Brown, see Betty Fladeland, Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Anti-Slavery Cooperation (Urbana, Ill., 1972), pp. 295–98; Charleston Mercury, April 7, August 30, 1844; John B. O’Neall, The Negro Law of South Carolina (Columbia, S.C., 1848), pp. 30–35; Liberator, April 2, 9, 16, 1844. For John Brown’s raid into Missouri to liberate slaves, see F. B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown (Boston, 1885), p. 482. For the story of Charles T. Torrey, see J. C. Lovejoy, Memoir of Rev. Charles T. Torrey, Who Died in the Penitentiary of Maryland, Where He Was Confined for Showing Mercy to the Poor (Boston, 1847); Filler, Crusade against Slavery, pp. 163–64; Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), pp. 164–65; Liberator, July 10, August 7, 1846; William Lloyd Garrison to Samuel E. Sewall, May 18, 1846; Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), 4:133. For the story of Robert Morris and Captain Drayton, see Donald M. Jacobs, “A History of the Boston Negro from Revolution to Civil War” (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1968), pp. 267–68; Liberator, December 1, 1848, July 3, 1857; Quarles, op. cit., pp. 163–64; Pennsylvania Freeman, January 6, 1853; Frederick Douglass’ Paper, September 14, 1855.

Underground Railroad Conductors: South—Black (Harriet Tubman)

For Josiah Henson’s role as a conductor, see Breyfogle, op. cit., pp. 189–91; for Henry Bibb, see Quarles, op. cit., pp. 61, 62, 65–66; for Leonard A. Grimes, see William Wells Brown, The Rising Sun; or the Antecedents and Advancement of the Colored Race (Boston, 1874), pp. 534–35; James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians (New York, 1979), p. 54. The discussion of Harriet Tubman is based on the following sources: Sarah H. Bradford, Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman (Auburn, N.Y., 1869); Earl Conrad, Harriet Tubman (New York, 1943); Frederick Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, p. 266; Breyfogle, op. cit., pp. 176–86; Still, Underground Railroad, pp. 296–306; John Bell Robinson, Pictures of Slavery and Anti-Slavery (Philadelphia, 1863), pp. 323–24; Mary Thacher Higginson, Letters and Journals of Thomas Wentworth Higginson (Boston, 1921), p. 81; Buckmaster, op. cit., pp. 150–51; Philip S. Foner, Frederick Douglass and Women’s Rights (Westport, Conn., 1976), p. 159.

Vigilance Committees; New York City

For the description of the work of a Vigilance Committee, see Quarles, op. cit., p. 150; for the action of the 1848 National Negro Convention, see Liberator, June 8, 1849. The discussion on the New York Committee of Vigilance is based on the following sources: The First Annual Report of the New York Committee for the Year 1837, Together with Important Facts Relative to Their Proceedings (New York, 1837), pp. 11–12; Quarles, op. cit., p. 151; Helen Boardman, “David Ruggles,” Negro History Bulletin 5 (November 1941): 39–40; Dorothy B. Parker, “David B. Ruggles, An Apostle for Human Freedom,” Journal of Negro History (January 1943): 23–50; Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 23, 26; Emancipator, July 28, August 4, September 1, October 6, 1836, March 2, 1837, June 17, 1841, and New York Express reprinted in Emancipator, August 30, 1838; National Anti-Slavery Standard, August 20, 1840; Fifth Annual Report of the New York Committee of Vigilance, for the Year 1842, with Interesting Facts Relative to their Proceedings (New York, 1842), p. 38.

Vigilance Committees; Philadelphia

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Joseph A. Borome, “The Vigilance Committee of Philadelphia,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 92 (July 1968): 320–52; William D. Fergusson, “A Black Underground: The Underground Railroad in Philadelphia, 1836–1954,” Pennsylvania History 44 (January 1977): 128–49; Quarles, op. cit.; Pennsylvania Freeman, April 19, July 4, 1838, December 29, 1841, May 12, 1842, August 22, 1844; McDougall, op. cit., p. 64; Gara, op. cit., p. 124; Annual Reports (Scrapbooks), December 1841, August 1843, August 1844; “Minutes of the Vigilance Committee of Philadelphia, 1839–1844,” Pennsylvania Historical Society; “Minutes of the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society, September 9, 1841, January 20, 1842, June 9, 1842,” Pennsylvania Historical Society; National Anti-Slavery Standard, April 28, May 15, 1860; Liberator, August 30, 1844; Larry Gara, “William Still and the Underground Railroad,” Pennsylvania History 28 (January 1961): 33–45; “Vigilant Committee of Philadelphia, Original Manuscript Book and Record of Cases, kept by Jacob C. White, Jr., Philadelphia, 1839–1844”; William Still, “Autograph Manuscript Journal of Fugitive Slaves Who Passed Through Station No. 2 of the Underground Railroad, Philadelphia, December 25, 1852–February 22, 1857,” both in Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Vigilance Committees: Boston

The discussion of the Boston Vigilance Committee is based on the following sources: Francis Jackson, “Vigilance Committee Account Book” and “Members of Committee of Vigilance,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston; Horton and Horton, op. cit., pp. 37, 42, 47, 50, 53, 55, 65–66, 80, 95, 101; Wilbur H. Siebert, The Vigilance Committee of Boston (Boston, 1953), pp. 1–23; Wilbur H. Siebert, “The Underground Railroad in Massachusetts,” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 45 (1936): 25–100; Donald M. Jacobs, “A History of the Boston Negro from Revolution to Civil War” (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1968), pp. 209–12; Austin Bearse, Reminiscences of Fugitive Slave Law Days in Boston (Boston, 1880), pp. 3–6; Robboy, op. cit., p. 598; “Old Passages of Boston’s Underground Railroad,” Magazine of History 3 (1926): 221; Leonard W. Levy, “The Abolition Riot: Boston’s First Slave Rescue,” New England Quarterly 25 (1952): 85–92; Joseph Nogee, “The Prigg Case and Fugitive Slavery,” Journal of Negro History 39 (July 1954): 197–99; Liberator, June 4, 11, July 2, August 27, 1841, March 11, 18, 1842. For the New England Freedom Association, see Liberator, July 15, 1842; Horton and Horton, op. cit., pp. 58, 99.

The Latimer Case

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Liberator, October 21, 28, November 4, 25, December 2, 16, 23, 1842; Boston Daily Bee, reprinted in Liberator, November 11, 1842; Jacobs, op. cit., pp. 2, 212–18; Horton and Horton, op. cit., pp. 99, 105; Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 54–55, 385; Latimer Journal and North Star, November 18, 23, 1842; Twelfth Annual Report of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society (Boston, 1844), p. 45. The Somersett case is discussed in Foner, History of Black Americans, 1:194, 296. See also Reginald Coupland, The British Anti-Slavery Movement (London, 1933), pp. 45–65. For J. Miller McKim’s letter see J. Miller McKim to Mrs. M. W. Chapman, November 19, 1857, Maria W. Weston Papers, Boston Public Library.

24. BLACK-WHITE RELATIONS IN THE ANTISLAVERY MOVEMENT

White Abolitionists and Free Blacks

For Walters’ comment, see The Antislavery Appeal: American Abolitionism after 1830 (Baltimore, 1976), p. 12. For the ideology behind antislavery devoting special attention to elevating free blacks, see Liberator, December 12, 1835; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Weld-Grimké Letters, 1:232–34; Lewis Tappan in Emancipator, November 14, 1834; William Goodell in Anti-Slavery Bugle, August 14, 1848; Elizur Wright, Jr., in Liberator, October 15, 1846. For the New England Anti-Slavery Society position, that of the Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women, and the 1841 Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society’s annual meeting, see Liberator, June 14, 1834, October 17, 1838, March 12, 1841. For the quotation from the Anti-Slavery Tract, see Charles C. Burleigh, “Slavery and the North,” Anti-Slavery Tracts, No. 10, p. 4. For Oerda Lerner’s comment on Theodore Weld, see Gerda Lerner, The Grimké Sisters of South Carolina (New York, 1968), p. 132. For the use of Hayden’s store and home, see Stanley J. and Anita W. Robby, “Lewis Hayden: From Fugitive Slave to Statesman,” New England Quarterly 46 (December 1973): 598. See also Wendell Phillips Garrison and Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, The Store of His Life as Told by His Children (Boston, 1894), 3:324. For Charlotte Forten’s comment, see Ray Allen Billington, ed., Journal of Charlotte Forten (New York, 1967), p. 45. For the “ride-ins” and the efforts to abolish the Negro pew, see Carlton Mabee, Black Freedom: The Non-violent Abolitionists from 1830 Through the Civil War (New York, 1970), pp. 127–58. For the opposition of white abolitionists to segregation and racism, see ibid., pp. 91–111. For Wendell Phillips’ action, see Philip S. Foner, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1964), p. 53. The report on Lucretia Mott is reprinted in National Anti-Slavery Standard, September 8, 1842. For John Bowers’ report see Colored American, February 25, 1837. For Meier and Rudwick, see August Meier and Elliott M. Rudwick, From Plantation to Ghetto (New York, 1967), p. 58, and for the Peases’ statement, see William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, “Bosto-nian Garrisonians and the Problem of Frederick Douglass,” Canadian Journal of History 2 (September 1967): 47–48.

The Case of Garrison

For Garrison’s statements to free blacks, see Liberator, February 12, 1831, January 21, February 25, March 12, May 19, June 2, 1832; Donald M. Jacobs, “A History of the Boston Negro from Revolution to Civil War” (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1968), pp. 88–90, 112–13. For Garrison’s letter to May, see William Lloyd Garrison to Reverend Samuel J. May, February 14, 1831, Anti-Slavery Papers, Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room. For Garrison’s view of prejudice as a sin, see Liberator, December 10, 1841, and his view that it would take a long time to eradicate prejudice, ibid., January 28, 1842. For the comment on the hiring of Thomas Paul, Jr., see Oliver Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison and His Times (Boston, 1880), p. 101; and for the congratulatory letter to Garrison, see Liberator, March 12, 1831. The handbill of the American Anti-Slavery Society following the New York 1834 riot is discussed in Linda B. Kerber, “Abolitionists and Amalgamators: The New York City Race Riot of 1834,” New York History 48 (1966): 35; the text of the handbill and letter to the mayor of New York are reprinted in Lewis Tappan, The Life of Arthur Tappan (New York, 1870), pp. 201–2, 215–16. For the Anti-Slavery Bugle’s comment, see issue of February 17, 1855. Donald M. Jacobs’ assessment of Garrison is in New England Quarterly 45 (December 1971): 277. The Hortons’ estimate is in James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians (New York, 1979), p. 84. For Nell’s comment, see William C. Nell, The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution (Boston, 1855), p. 369.

Ambivalence among White Abolitionists

For the New England Anti-Slavery Society action on black members, see George W. Williams, History of the Negro Race from 1619 to 1880 (New York, 1883), 2:80; Liberator, June 2, 1837. For Douglass’ incident, see North Star, January 8, 1848; Frederick Douglass’ Paper, February 17, 1854. For the William C. Nell incident, see Horton and Horton, op. cit., p. 83; George W. Forbes, “Typescript Biographical Sketch of William Cooper Nell,” n.d., Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room. For Arthur Tappan’s statement, see Tappan, op. cit., p. 132, and for Lewis Tappan’s position, see Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan and the Evangelist War against Slavery (Cleveland, 1969), pp. 46–52. For the position that the fight against prejudice should be abandoned see Mabee, op. cit., p. 92. For Edmund Quincy’s statement, see Liberator, December 10, 1841, and John S. Patterson, “A Garrisonian Discussion of Prejudice: ‘No One Dare to Rise,’ ” New England Quarterly 48 (December 1975): 566.

White Paternalism

For Frederick Douglass’ comment, see Douglass’ Monthly (October 1860). For Coffin’s comments, see Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin (Cincinnati, 1876), pp. 297–399. For Richard A. Falk’s comment, see his “Black Man’s Burden in Ohio, 1849–1863” (Ph.D. diss., University of Toledo, 1972). For the comments of Ward and Delany, see Liberator, May 28, 1852, and Pease and Pease, op. cit., p. 43n. Delany’s comment on the economic treatment of blacks by white abolitionists is in Martin R. Delany, The Condition, Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States (Philadelphia, 1852), pp. 10, 27; Frederick Douglass’ Paper, May 18, 1855. The action of the New England Anti-Slavery Society is reported in Liberator, March 10, 1832, and ibid., June 12, 1836, for the action of the American Anti-Slavery Society. See also Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), pp. 48–55 for discussion of economic relations between white and black abolitionists. For the Colored American, see issue of November 15, 1837. J. McCune Smith’s analysis is in Frederick Douglass’ Paper, February 16, 1855. For the American Union, see Exposition of the Objects and Plans of the American Union far the Relief and Improvement of Race (Boston, 1835). Douglass’ comment is in Frederick Douglass’ Paper, May 18, 1855.

Growing Tensions

For Paul and Ward’s statements, see Quarles, op. cit., pp. 47–48. Weld’s and Wright’s statements are reported in Liberator, October 2, 1837, and Colored American, October 4, 1837. Wright’s speeches are reprinted in Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black Americans: Major Speeches by Blacks in the United States, 1798–1973 (New York, 1975), pp. 83–88.

The Split between Douglass and the Garrisonians: I

For Quarles’ statement, see op. cit., p. 53. For May’s letter on Brown, see Samuel J. May, Jr., to Joseph Estlin, May 21, 1849, cited in Larry Gara, “The Professional Fugitive in the Abolition Movement,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 48 (Spring, 1965): 201.

The story of the Douglass-Garrison split can be found in Benjamin Quarles, “The Breach between Douglass and Garrison,” Journal of Negro History 23 (April 1938): 144–54; Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 136–54; Pease and Pease, op. cit., pp. 29–48, and Tyrone Tillery, “The Inevitability of the Douglass-Garrison Conflict,” Phylon 37 (June 1976): 137–49. For discussions of the National Convention of Colored Citizens of 1843, see Liberator, September 22, 1843; Charles Wesley, “The Participation of Negroes in Anti-Slavery Political Parties,” Journal of Negro History 29 (January 1944): 43–45, Joel Schor, Henry Highland Garnet (Westport, Conn., 1977), pp. 56–57. For the full text of Garnet’s “An Address to the Slaves of the United States of America,” see Philip S. Foner, Voice of Black Americans, 1:103–12. For Douglass’ observations on restrictions placed on his early antislavery speeches, see Frederick Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom (New York, 1855), pp. 361–62. Blassingame’s interpretation is in The Frederick Douglass Papers (1841–46) (New Haven, Conn., 1979), l:xlviii–xlix. For Maria Weston Chapman’s letter to Richard D. Webb and Douglass’ reaction, see Douglass to Richard D. Webb, March 29, 1846; Douglass to Maria W. Chapman, March 29, 1849, Anti-Slavery Letters to Garrison, Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room. On the reaction of the National Anti-Slavery Standard, see issue of July 24, 1846. For the controversy over Douglass’ freedom by purchase, see Liberator, January 15, March 19, 1847; Garrison to Elizabeth Pease, April 1, 1847, Garrison Ms., Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room; Douglass to Henry C. Wright, December 22, 1846, Liberator, January 29, 1847. For a discussion of paternalism in the white woman antislavery groups, see Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race and Class (New York, 1982).

The Split between Douglass and the Garrisonians: II

For the events leading up to the publication of the North Star, see Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 75–84; Pease and Pease, op. cit., pp. 34–37; Abby Kelly Foster to Maria Weston Chapman, October 5, 1847, Weston Papers, Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room. For Garrison’s view that blacks needed a paper but that the Liberator served that purpose, see his letter to Robert Purvis, December 10, 1832, Anti-Slavery Papers, Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room. For Douglass’ changing views on reliance on moral suasion and opposition to violence, see Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 137–39, and Leslie F. Goldstein, “Violence as an Instrument for Social Change: The Views of Frederick Douglass, 1819–1895,” Journal of Negro History 41 (January 1976): 61–69. Douglass’ changing views on the Constitution are discussed in Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 139–41. For a discussion of Goodell’s interpretation of the Constitution, see M. Leon Perkal, “William Goodell: A Life of Reform” (Ph.D. diss., City University of New York, 1972), and William Goodell, Slavery and Anti-Slavery (New York, 1897). The controversy over Julia M. Griffiths is discussed in Philip S. Foner, ed., Frederick Douglass and Women’s Rights (Westport, Conn., 1976), pp. 19–24. Garrison’s son’s statement appeared in Nation 52 (1891): 388.

For Beriah Green’s statement, see Mabee, op. cit., pp. 36–37; Douglass’ statement about facts is in North Star, January 8, 1848. For Cornish and the Northern Star and Freeman’s Advocate, see Quarles, op. cit., pp. 47–48. Dr. John S. Rock’s statement on the abolitionists is in Liberator, March 16, 1860, and Douglass’ statement before the Baltimore Colored High School is published in Baltimore American, June 23, 1894.

25. BLACKS AND ANTISLAVERY POLITICAL PARTIES, 1840–1848

Formation of the Liberty Party

For the factors leading up to the formation of the Liberty party, see Theodore T. Smith, The Liberty and Free-Soil Parties in the Northwest (New York, 1897), pp. 27–39; John R. Hendricks, “The Liberty Party in New York State, 1838–1848” (Ph.D. diss., Fordham University, 1959), pp. 10–35; The platform of the Liberty party is in Kirk M. Porter and Donald Bruce Johnson, eds., National Party Platforms, 1840–1956 (Urbana, Ill., 1956), pp. 4–5. For early black support of the Liberty party, see Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), pp. 183–84.

Election of 1840

For Garnet’s statement, see Liberator, December 8, 1843, and Joel Schor, Henry Highland Garnet (Westport, Conn., 1977), p. 33. For Thomas Cole’s position, see Liberator, December 4, 18, 1840. For Charles B. Ray’s stand, see Colored American, April 18, October 3, 10, 1840. For the position of Thomas Van Rensselaer, see ibid., October 10, 31, 1840. See also for role of blacks in the campaign, Charles H. Wesley, “The Participation of Negroes in Anti-Slavery Political Parties,” Journal of Negro History 29 (June 1844): 44–46; Eric Foner, “Racial Attitudes of the New York Free Soilers,” New York History 46 (October 1965): 313.

Postelection Developments

For the Buffalo National Negro Convention, see Liberator, September 1, 18, 1843; Wesley, op. cit., pp. 43–45; Minutes of the National Convention of Colored Citizens Held at Buffalo, on the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th & 19th of August, 1843, for the Purposes of Considering Their Moral and Actual Conditions as American Citizens (New York, 1843), pp. 15–22.

The Annexation of Texas Issue

For events in Texas, see Eugene C. Barker, The Life of Stephen F. Austin, Founder of Texas, 1793–1836 (Dallas, 1923), pp. 147, 237–42, 254–56, 324; Eugene C. Barker, ed., The Austin Papers (Washington, D.C. and Austin, Tex., 1919–1926), 3:101–2; James K. Greer, “The Texas Declaration of Independence,” in Eugene C. Barker, ed., Readings in Texas History (Dallas, 1929), pp. 234–45, and Annie Middleton, “The Last Stage in the Annexation of Texas,” in ibid., pp. 86–102. For the effort of Andrews and Tappan to have Britain purchase the slaves in Texas and grant them freedom, see Charles Shively, “An Option for Freedom in Texas, 1840–1844,” Journal of Negro History 50 (April 1965): 77–96. For the antislavery peace pledge, see Liberator, June 27, 1845, and for black opposition to annexation of Texas, see Quarles, op. cit., pp. 192–93.

Election of 1844

For Liberty party opposition to the annexation of Texas, see Joseph G. Raybec, Free Soil: The Election of 1848 (Lexington, Ky., 1970), p. 57. For the stand of James McCune Smith and the New York City delegation against endorsing the Liberty party, see National Anti-Slavery Standard, October 17, 24, 1844, and Wesley, op. cit., p. 46. For Gay’s statement, see National Anti-Slavery Standard, October 24, 1844, For Lincoln’s criticism of Liberty party refusal to support Henry Clay, see Roy P. Basler, Marion Dolores Pragtt, and Lloyd A. Dunlap, eds., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln (New Brunswick, N.J., 1953–1955), 1:347–48, and Stephen B. Oates, With Malice toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln (New York, 1977), p. 69. For Garnet’s statement, see Proceedings of the National Liberty Party Convention, Held at Buffalo, New York, June 14th and 15th, 1848; Including the Resolutions and Addresses Adopted by That Body, and Speeches of Beriah Green and Gerrit Smith on That Occasion (Utica, N.Y., 1848), pp. 12–13; Schor, op. cit., p. 95.

War with Mexico

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Frederick Merk, Slavery and the Annexation of Texas (New York, 1972), pp. 13–46. Alfred Hoyt Bill, Rehearsal for Conflict: The Story of Our War with Mexico, 1846–1848 (Indianapolis, 1950), pp. 12–35; Philip S. Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York, 1950), 1:182–83, 187–88, 291–96; J. D. P. Fuller, The Movement for the Acquisition of All Mexico, 1846–48 (Baltimore, 1936), pp. 128–34; Albert K. Weinberg, Manifest Destiny: A Study in Nationalist Expansionism (New York, 1935), pp. 45–52; Eugene Irving McCormack, James K. Polk: A Political Biography (Berkeley, 1922), pp. 77–82; John H. Schroeder, Mr. Polk’s War: American Opposition and Dissent, 1846–1848 (Madison, Wis., 1973), pp. 104–12; Frank Friedel, Dissent in Three American Wars (Cambridge, Mass., 1976), pp. 13–23. Two recent studies of the Mexican war are Norman A. Graebner, “The Mexican War: A Study in Causation,” Pacific Historical Review 22 (1980): 405–26, and Ernest McPherson Lander, Jr., Reluctant Imperialists: Calhoun, the South Carolinians, and the Mexican War (Baton Rouge, La., 1980).

The Wilmot Proviso

The discussion in this section is based on the following sources: Eric Foner, “The Wilmot Provision Revisited,” Journal of American History 56 (September 1969): 269–79; Eric Foner, “Racial Attitudes of the New York Free Soilers,” New York History 46 (October 1965): 317–18; Charles B. Going, David Wilmot: Free Soiler (New York, 1924), pp. 174–75; Margaret Koshinski, “David Wilmot and Free Soil” (master’s thesis, Columbia University, 1949), p. 25; Congressional Globe, 29th Cong., 2nd sess., Appendix, p. 317; 30th Cong., 1st sess., Appendix, pp. 1076–89.

Splits in the Liberty Party

For the views of the Ohio Liberty party men, see Joseph G. Rayback, “The Liberty Party Leaders of Ohio: Exponents of Anti-Slavery Coalition,” Ohio Archeological and Historical Quarterly 57 (April 1947): 165–78; Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (New York, 1970), pp. 73–80. For the opponents of the “one idea” in the Liberty party, see William Goodell, Slavery and Anti-Slavery (New York, 1853), p. 425; North Star, June 23, July 12, August 4, 1848; Henry Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (Boston, 1872–1877), 2:109–14; Schor, op. cit., pp. 93–95; Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 156–57; Proceedings of the National Liberty Party Convention (Utica, N.Y., 1848), pp. 1–13; Garnet on land monopoly in North Star, September 15, 1848.

The Free Soil Party

For the views of Robert Morris, see Liberator, August 25, 1848, and for the role played in Massachusetts by the Free Soil party, see Donald M. Jacobs, “A History of the Boston Negro from Revolution to Civil War” (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1968), p. 305. For the formation of the Free Soil party, see Gerald Sorin, Abolitionism: A New Perspective (New York, 1972), pp. 114–20. For David Wilmot’s position on Negro suffrage, see Congressional Globe, 31st Cong., 1st sess., Appendix, p. 943; 32d Cong., 2d sess., p. 405; Eric Foner, “Racial Attitude of New York Free Soilers,” p. 318, and Pennsylvania Freeman, December 7, 1848. For the role of the Barnburners, see Eric Foner, “Racial Attitude of New York Free Soilers,” op. cit., pp. 314–18; Herbert D. A. Donovan, TheBarnburners (New York, 1905), pp. 92–94. For the blacks at the Buffalo convention, see Oliver Dyer, Phonographic Report of the Proceedings of the National Free Soil Convention (New York, 1848), pp. 4, 21; W. E. Smith, The Francis Blair Family in Politics (New York, 1933), 1:236; Reunion of the Free Soilers, at Dover Landing, Higham, Massachusetts (Boston, 1877), p. 43; Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 158–59; Frederick Douglass’ Paper, August 20, 1852. A recent examination of the issues discussed in this section is John Mayfield, Rehearsal for Republicanism: Free Soil and the Politics of Antislavery (Port Washington, N.Y., 1980).

Election of 1848

For Edmund Quincy’s view, see Liberator, September 15, 1848, and for Garrison on the Whig party and Taylor, see Liberator, July 7, 1848. For Smith’s reply to Van Rensselaer, see Foner, “Racial Attitudes,” p. 320. For Garrison on the results of the election, see Liberator, January 19, 1848, and for Phillips on voting, see Wendell Phillips to John Gorham Palfrey, December 9, 1847, John Gorham Palfrey Papers, Houghton Library, Harvard University. For Douglass’ position during the election of 1848, see Foner, Frederick Douglass, pp. 158–61, and North Star, August 18, September 1, 29, November 10, 1848; see Schor, op. cit., pp. 95–97.



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History of Black Americans -- : From the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom to the Eve of the Compromise of 1850

MLA

"Bibliography and Sources." History of Black Americans : From the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom to the Eve of the Compromise of 1850. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. The African American Experience. Greenwood Publishing Group. 19 Dec 2014. <http://testaae.greenwood.com/doc.aspx?fileID=GR7966&chapterID=GR7966-2926&path=books/greenwood>

Chicago Manual of Style

"Bibliography and Sources." In History of Black Americans : From the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom to the Eve of the Compromise of 1850, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. The African American Experience. Greenwood Publishing Group. http://testaae.greenwood.com/doc.aspx?fileID=GR7966&chapterID=GR7966-2926&path=books/greenwood. (accessed December 19, 2014).